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Exposition of
the Gospel of John

Analytical Outline of John 1 The Word is made flesh.

I. (1-5) The Word is Divine.

A. (1) The Word is preexistent and Divine.

B. (2) The Word is immutable.

C. (3) The Word is the Creator.

D. (4) The Word gives life.

E. (5) The word gives light.

II. (6-8) The role of John is to testify the Word to the world.

A. (6) John was sent by God.

B. (7) John bore witness for Christ unto men.

C. (8) He was not the Light.

III. (9-13) The Light came to the world.

A. (9) The Light came to the world.

B. (10-11) The Light was not received by the world.

1. (10) The world did not know Him.

2. (11) The world did not receive Him.

C. (12-13) The Light was received by some individuals.

1. (12) God gave them authority to be children of God.

2. (13) They partook spiritual nature of God.

IV. (14-18) The Word was incarnated.

A. (14) The Word was made flesh.

B. (15) The Word was before John.

C. (16) The fullness of the Word was overflowing grace.

D. (17) The Word emanated grace and truth.

E. (18) The Word revealed the Father.

V. (19-34) John bore testimony for the Coming One.

A. (19-28) John bore testimony of himself.

1. (19) The circumstance is given.

2. (20-23) The position of John the Baptizer is given.

a. (20-21) He denied himself to be the Christ, nor any of the


b. (22-23) He identified himself to be the forerunner of the


3. (24-28) The work of John is explained.

a. (24-25) The religious leaders challenged John's reason in

baptizing people.

b. (26-27) He declared his work was to prepare the way of the


4. (28) The location of his work is given.

B. (29-34) John bore testimony for Christ.

1. (29) Jesus was the Lamb of God.

2. (30) Jesus was before him.

3. (31-34) God testified Jesus was His Son in John's baptism.

a. (31) He would be manifested to Israel by it.

b. (32) The Holy Spirit descended upon Him.

c. (33) God's token for His Son was recounted.

d. (34) John testified that Jesus was the Son of God.

VI. (35-42) Jesus called His first disciples.

A. (35-36) John testified to two disciples concerning the Lamb of God.

B. (37) These two followed Jesus.

C. (38-39) They abode with Him.

D (40) Their names are identified as Andrew and John.

E. (41) Andrew testified Christ to his brother Peter.

F. (42) Jesus knew the inner man.

VII. (43-51) Jesus called Philip and Nathanael.

A. (43-44) Philip followed Jesus.

1. (43) Jesus found Philip and called him.

2. (44) Philip was of Bethsaida.

B. (45-51) Nathanael followed Jesus.

1. (45-46) Philip testified to him.

a. (45) He recognized Jesus was the Messiah.

b. (46) He urged him to investigate.

2. (47-51) Nathanael confessed Jesus' Messiahship.

a. (47-48) Jesus revealed His supernatural knowledge.

b. (49) Nathanael professed his faith in Jesus.

c. (50-51) Jesus promised greater things to him.

Exegetical Commentary of John 1

The four accounts of the Gospel of Jesus are written for the purpose of producing faith in the Person of Christ (John 20:30-31). Therefore, the Gospel testifies about the Person of Jesus. Also, according to Luke's preface, the Gospel records the things which Jesus had done and taught (Luke 1:1-4). Each evangelist portrays Jesus in a different way, Matthew writes Jesus is the King of the Jews, Mark depicts Him as the Servant of God, Luke portrays Him as the Son of Man, and John expounds Him to be the Word of God. John opened his account with a preface of the whole discourse (John 1:1-18). In the first five verses, he expounded the preexistence and Divinity of the Son of God. The phrase "in the beginning" refers to the creation of the world (Gen.1:1). However, the Word existed before the world was created. He therefore was not a created being, but was Divine in essence, the Self-existing One. His personality was the second Person of the Godhead, Who was in perfect communion with God from eternity. Regarding His relation to the world, He was the Creator, Sustainer, and Revealer. Though His creatures were depended upon His sustaining power, they would not submit to His will. Rather, they loved darkness and sin rather than light (John 3:17-18). Then, from verses 6, the evangelist began to relate the history concerning the earthly ministry of the Word. First, he introduced the herald of the Son of God, John the Immerse. Though God sent him to testify His appointed Messiah to the Jewish race, sadly, the vast majority of them did not receive Him, for they loved to live in sin and iniquity. Nevertheless, there were some believed His claim, and recognized His identity as their Creator. These were adopted by God to be His children, who were spiritually begotten by Divine agency. Then, John described the glory of the incarnated Word, Who was the "only-Begotten Son" of the Father. The Jews highly respected Moses as their lawgiver, but Jesus was much greater than Moses. The Law was given to reveal sin (Gal.3:19), but the ministry and work of Jesus Christ was to remove sinners from condemnation of death (2 Cor.5:21). The law was only a shadow, the real image was Christ (Heb.10:1). Also, He was the perfect Revealer of God's person and will, Who dwelt in eternity with Him.

Having finished the preface, the evangelist proceeded to narrate the historical record of the ministry of the Son of God. He began it by recording the ministry of John the Baptizer, the forerunner of Jesus, who was commissioned by God to preach an immersion unto repentance near the mouth of Jordan. While he was questioned by the religious leaders in Jerusalem concerning his identity and ministry, he identified himself as "a voice crying out in the wilderness". Such word was referring to the prophecy of Isaiah who wrote by inspiration that a herald would appear in the wilderness and prepare the way of the Messiah. Having been assured of God by revelation and signs, John testified to his disciples that Jesus was the Christ, the Lamb of God. Believing his testimony, two of Johns disciples then came to Jesus and followed Him. Jesus then made the first two disciples, their names were Andrew and John. They abode with Him that same day, and respected Him as their teacher.

Then, the first effort of personal evangelism was made by Andrew who went to his brother Peter and testified unto him about Jesus. Most probably, Peter had been expecting the Kingdom of God and the Messiah, for he went to meet Jesus as soon as he learned about His identity from Andrew. Remarkably, Jesus, foreseeing his weakness of fickleness, promised him that he would be firm as a rock. Afterward, Jesus found Philip on His way to Galilee, and directly called him to be His disciple. By such personal contact from the Savior of mankind, Philip responded to His invitation and became His follower. He immediately shared his hope with Nathanael concerning the Messiah. Though Nathanael was prejudice against Jesus home town, however, he came to Him upon Philips appeal that he should investigate the matter for himself. He also became Jesus disciple and acknowledged His Messiahship, Who supernaturally revealed the secret of his heart.

Doctrinal Summary of John 1

In this chapter, the Divinity of Jesus is discussed. (1) He is the Word of God (John 1:1). (2) He is preexistent, which means He is ever existing and He existed before time. (3) He was in perfect communion with God the Father from eternity (John 1:18). (4) He was Divinity in essence, however, He was not God the Father, but has His own personality as the second Person in the Godhead. (5) He was not a creature, but the Creator of all things. (6) He sustains all things by the word of His power (Heb.1:3), in "Him all things consist" (Col.1:17). (7) He is also the life-giving Word. There is no life existing apart from Him (John 1:4). (8) He is the Reason of God, Who gives the faculty of intellect to men. (9) He is perfect humanity, for "the Word of made flesh" (John 1:14). (10) He was the God "appointed Messiah", the Anointed One. In the O.T. time, God would appoint individuals by anointing them with oil in accomplishing His purpose for His scheme of redemption. Jesus was the fulfillment of all, Who was anointed by God with the Holy Spirit. (11) He is the Lamb of God to take away the sins of the world. He was the propitiation in reconciling men to God. This was accomplished by His death on the cross, in that He paid the penalty of their violation of Gods law (1John 3:4; 1 Pet.1:18-19). (12) He is the source of grace and truth (John 1:17). (13) He is the perfect agent to reveal Gods will to men (John 1:18). (14) He is the "Only-begotten-Son" of the Father, He is the unique Son of God. (15) By believing and obeying Him, one could become the children of God, who is begotten of God (John 1:12-13). (16) He had the authority to baptize men with the Holy Spirit. This promise was fulfilled in the apostle on the day of Pentecost (Acts 1:6-7; 2:1-4). (17) He is the "Ladder to Heaven", for no man can enter Heaven--except through Him (John 14:6; 1:51) Who is the Mediator between God and men (1 Tim.2:4-6). (18) He had supernatural knowledge to discern mens hearts and foreknew the future.

The person and ministry of John the Baptizer is discussed in this chapter. He was a voice in the wilderness, the herald of the Messiah. His role was to testify the Messiah to the Jewish nation, which was one of the purposes of baptism (John 1:31-34). Humanity is divided into two groups. They are the believing and the unbelieving. The believing are those who believe and obey the teaching of Jesus, for they recognize His identity. The unbelieving are characterized as darkness, who do not comprehend the Word of God, nor do they receive Him. Beside these things, the topic of personal evangelism is discussed, the keys for it are witnessing, personal contact, and investigating. Most importantly, evangelism is successful if Christ is learned or known by man, for He Himself has the attacking influence and power.

Analytical Outline of John 2

Jesus at the marriage feast, and cleanses the temple at Jerusalem.

I. (1-11) Jesus manifests His glory at a marriage feast.

A. (1-2) The circumstance of the miracle is given.

1. (1). The time and scene are described.

2. (2) Jesus and His disciples are presented.

B. (3-5) The occasion is described.

1. (3) The request of Mary is described.

2. (4) Jesus denies her request.

3. (5) Her persistence of faith in Jesus is seen.

B. (6-8) The manner of the miracle is described.

1. (6) The details are given.

2. (7) Jesus charge is given.

3. (8) The servants comply His charge.

C. (9-11) The results of the miracle are described.

1. (9-10) The ruler of the feast is astonished with the better wine.

2. (11) Jesus disciples believe in Him.

II. (12-25) Jesus enters into Jerusalem.

A. (12-22) Jesus zeal for the temple is described.

1. (12-17) Jesus cleanses the temple.

a. (12-13) The circumstance is given.

b. (14) The occasion is described.

c. (15) The cleansing is taken place.

d. (16) The rebuke is reprimanded.

e. (17) The effect on the disciples is described.

2. (17-22) The sign of Jesus resurrection is given.

a. (18) The Jews challenge His authority.

b. (19) Jesus will rise up Himself from the dead.

c. (20) The Jews misunderstand His spiritual saying.

d. (21) Jesus refers to the spiritual temple.

f. (22) The disciples remember the word of Jesus.

B. (23-25) Jesus requires genuine faith, but not shallow faith.

1. (23) Many believe in Jesus miracles, but not His person.

2. (24) Jesus does not commit Himself to them.

3. (25) He does not need their testimony.

Exegetical Commentary of John 2

From verses 1 to 11, the first sign of Jesus is recorded. In this miracle, He fulfilled His word concerning the promise to His disciples that they would see greater things of Him (John 1:50). He manifested His glory as the Divine Son of God by changing water into wine. Such act shows He is the Ruler and Creator of all nature (John 1:3). Certainly, Jesus did not change water into "intoxicated wine", but grape juice. Since both Testaments condemn the drinking of intoxicated beverage, and the best wine in the ancient time was grape juice. The word "wine" used in the Bible can be referring to both "fermented grape juice" and "unfermented grape juice", and only the context can determine its specific usage. Many people have misinterpreted the teaching of this event, and misused it to justify their consumption of intoxicated beverages. It was unreasonable and inconceivable for Jesus to change water into intoxicant, Who loved righteousness and hated sin (Heb.1:9).

It was three days after Jesus had called Nathanael, He and His disciples returned to Galilee, and joined a marriage feast held in the town of Cana which was a few miles away from Jesus hometown, Nazareth. Jesus mother Mary was there also, while the wine was lacking, she urged Jesus to solve the problem. She, knowing the identity of her son from His birth and seeing His new disciples, probably requested Him to perform a miracle in order to manifest His Messiahship. However, Jesus denied her request, for it was the Fathers choice to determine when should He manifest His messianic glory. Since Jesus baptism, He began to inaugurate His Divine mission. Thus, He showed His earthly mother that He was her Lord pertaining to spiritual things. Remarkably, Mary demonstrated her faith in her Savior, and urged to the servants to observe the words of Jesus. Her faith was rewarded by her Lord Who deemed it was a good opportunity to strengthen the faith of the disciples. He then commanded the servants to fill "six waterpots" with water, and supernaturally changed it into the best wine, grape fruit-juice. When the wine was given to the governor of the feast, he was astonished by the quality of it. Most importantly, Jesus accomplished the design of His miracle, for His disciples believed in His person as the Messiah by seeing the sign. After going to Capernaum and stating there for a short time, Jesus went up to Jerusalem to observe the feast of the Passover. This feast was held in commemoration Gods deliverance for the Israelites from the Egyptian bondage. While He was in the temple, He was indignant with the corruption existing in the temple area. During this time, religious observances were corrupted by materialism and formalism. The religious leaders were concerned about either material gains or human traditions, but not about Gods authority and ordinances. Jesus, filled with righteous anger, therefore purged the temple court by overthrowing the tables of those who made merchandise, for the temple was a place set aside unto Gods worship. Amazingly, this act of purging the temple was prophesied by Malachi, that "the Messenger of the covenant will suddenly come to His temple" and purge Gods people (Mal.3:1ff). So, Jesus action was an manifestation of His Messianic authority, and made a strong impression upon His disciples concerning their Masters zeal for Gods holiness. However, the religious leaders did not recognize His identity, and challenged His authority in cleansing the temple. Responding to their request of a sign, Jesus announced that He would raise up a temple after the existing temple was destroyed, pointing to His resurrection from the dead as the proof of His Messiahship (Rom.1:4). However, the religious leaders being sensual minded did not understand His saying, and contended about the splendid of the Herod Temple. Jesus disciples understood His sign later when He was resurrected from the dead, that He was speaking of the building of the spiritual temple (Eph.2:20-22). Every baptized believer is a part of Gods temple, who worships God in spirit and in truth (1 Cor.6:19-20; John 4:23-24). While Jesus was performing many miracles at the feast, many people were amazed by His mighty works and held Him as a miracle-worker. Jesus, knowing their insincere faith, did not fully reveal Himself to them.

Doctrinal Summary of John 2

In this chapter, the first sign of Jesus is recorded. It is significant that Jesus worked His first miracle at a marriage feast. The Kingdom is referred as a marriage feast by Jesus on several occasions. The faithful disciples will share eternal joy of God in His love and Kingdom. Another feature of this sign is Jesus will supply ones need. Apart from Him, there is no satisfaction in life. Also that, Jesus was the Lord of nature in this event, Who changed water into the best wine--grape juice in fulfilling the joy of the wedding feast. Many people, however, have misinterpreted the teaching of this event, and misused it to justify their consumption of intoxicated beverages. Jesus here did not change water into intoxicated beverage. It was unreasonable and inconceivable for Jesus to change water into intoxicant, for both the Old and the New Testament condemned the drinking of fermented grape juice. The word "wine" can be referred both to fermented or unfermented grape juice, its usage therefore is warranted only by the context. Upon Jesus attendance at the marriage feast, social gathering is therefore not sinful in itself as long as it does not violate Gods command.

The faith of Mary is seen in her trust in the person of Jesus, her Lord.. Though Jesus denied her request in providing wine for the occasion, she told the servants, "Whatsoever He saith unto you, do it" (John 2:4). Her faith was rewarded by Jesus with a sign, which confirmed both her faith and the disciples faith in Jesus the Christ.

In Jesus cleansing of the temple, we learn that holy things must not be profaned by common use. Every spiritual exercise is ordained by God. No one should dare to change it, for God has purposed it to be so. In order to be approved of God, ones motive in worship must be sincere and reverent. From verses 23-25, insincere faith was rejected by Jesus. Many people believed Jesus was a miracle-worker, however, they did not submit to His teaching. Therefore, it was insufficient. One must be hearer and doer of the word, for Jesus demands total commitment from His followers.

Analytical Outline of John 3

Jesus is the source of eternal life.

I. (1-21) Jesus discourse with Nicodemus is recorded.

A. (1-2) The circumstance is given.

1. (1) Nicodemus was a Pharisee.

2. (2) He was sure that Jesus was a teacher sent from God.

B. (3-8) The question of the new birth is answered.

1. (3) One must be born again in order to see the kingdom.

2. (4) Nicodemus does not understand the concept of a new birth.

3. (5) The birth of water and of spirit is essential to enter the kingdom.

4. (6-8) The process of spiritual birth is explained.

C. (9-12) The question of Heavenly witness is answered.

1. (9) Nicodemus does not understand Jesus saying.

2. (10) One should not be astonished by His teaching.

3. (11) Heavenly authority testifies Heavenly truths to men.

4. (12) One should believe the teachings from Heavenly authority.

D. (13-17) The question of eternal life determines on ones trust in the Son of God.

1. (13) The Son of God is Heavenly authorized to be the Revealer.

2. (14) The Son of God must be lifted up for mens salvation.

3. (15-18) The Son of God must be believed.

a. (15) Eternal life is conditionated upon ones faith in Jesus.

b. (16) The Son of God is given as a Gift of eternal life.

c. (17) God sent Him into the world to save the lost.

E. (18-21) The question of condemnation is answered.

1. (18) One is condemned for rejecting the authority of the Son.

2. (19) One rejects the Son because he loves to live in sin.

3. (20) One rejects the Son because he hates to be righteous.

4. (21) The necessary result of those who love the truth is contrasted.

II. (22-36) John the baptizer testifies Christs authority to the audience.

A. (22-24) The circumstance is given.

B. (25-26) The question of greatness is asked.

C. (27-36) Johns testimony of Jesus is given.

1. (27-31) Jesus authority is supreme.

2. (32-34) Jesus word is supreme.

3. (35-36) Jesus word is life.

Exegetical Commentary of John 3

In this chapter, the evangelist recorded two discourses concerning the question of eternal life. Ones eternal destiny is determined on his trust and obedience in the Son of God. The first discourse is given by Jesus to Nicodumus, a Pharisee and a member of the Sanhedrin, the Jewish judicial counsel. Though many Jews at Jerusalem failed to comprehend the significance behind Jesus miracles, and would not pay attention to His teaching, yet Nicodemus was convinced that Jesus was a teacher sent from God (John 3:2). He therefore came to Jesus at the night time privately, hoping to learn from Him concerning the Kingdom of God. Nicodemus probably had heard about the preaching of John concerning the approach of the Kingdom, and seen the mighty ministry of Christ. Jesus directly addressed to his question concerning the Kingdom of God, that he, though being a Judaism teaching, must submit to Johns baptism and Christs teaching in order to enter into the Kingdom. Since the day of Pentecost, men are commanded to be baptized with N.T. baptism and to obey the Gospel in order to be saved (Acts 2:38; 19:1-6). Salvation is equal to the entrance of the Kingdom (Acts 2:38, 47). Though the spiritual birth takes place in an unseen and inconceivable manner, its effect however is known to men by the witness of the Spirits teaching. One may not see the operation of God in baptism, however, he has to submit to it because God decrees to be so (Mark 16:16). Jesus appealed to Nicodemus to submit to Heavenly authority and testimony in his religious practice. Since religion is solely depended upon Divine revelation, and man is left into darkness apart from Gods objective truth (Jere.10:23).

After speaking to Nicodemus about the necessity of the spiritual birth, Jesus addressed to him the importance of trusting in His person (John 3:13-18). Because He alone was the perfect Revealer of God from Heaven (Heb.1:1-2). One therefore had to listen to His word in order to learn the will of the Father (John 12:48-50), and to obey His word in order to be saved (Heb.5:9). Jesus is also the source of spiritual blessings. First, ones faith in Him obtains forgiveness of sin. Though men should suffer eternal punishment because of their sins, God, by His infinite love, provided them the perfect sin-offering (1 Pet.1:18-19). So that, by believing and obeying His Son, they might be freed from the punishment of their violation of Gods law (2 Cor.5:21). Secondly, believers of Christ also inherit eternal life through His redemptive works (John 3:16-17). He has not only sanctified them by His death, and also given them the word that is spirit and life (John 6:63). They therefore by submitting to His teaching will inherit the promise of eternal redemption, and be quickened unto life eternal. Thirdly, believers of Christ are not under condemnation of the law, since they have received Gods testimony concerning His Son. On the other hand, those who reject His Son will be condemned. It would be irrational for one to reject Gods offering of salvation in Jesus Christ, but the evangelist, by inspiration, explains its reason (John 3:18-21). One will refuse to believe in Christ, simply because he loves to live in sinful pleasures, and hates to have his sinful life exposed by the truth. Sadly, they-- who enjoy sin for a season, and hate to be reproved by the truth--will suffer eternal punishment in Hell. Everyone can make his own choice of his eternal destiny, whether obeys Christ to obtain life, or disobeys Him to be lost.

The second discourse recorded in this chapter is the testimony of John the Baptizer concerning the greatness of Jesus (John 3:22-36). When John was asked about the popularity of Jesus, he testified that Jesus had supreme authority over all. Concerning His Person, Jesus was approved by Heavenly authority as the Son of God (John 1:31-33), and was the object of faith (John 8:34), and would be exalted as the King of kings and the Lord of lords (Philip.2:6-9). Concerning His teaching and testimony, He was supreme over all, for He alone was from Heaven to reveal Heavenly truth, and also had received the full measure of the Holy Spirit. In summary, eternal life is conditionated upon ones obedience to Him, but Gods judgement and punishment are executed upon those who refuse to obey Him. Since God has given Him all authority, therefore He has the right to give life to whomsoever He will (John 5:27-29).

Doctrinal Summary of John 3

From verses 3 through 8, Jesus teaches that ones entrance into the Kingdom is by a spiritual birth. It is by no means a physical birth. One cannot claim any privilege from his descent, but is responsible for his own moral action. This spiritual takes place when an individual obey Christs teaching, and is consummated in the act of baptism. To be born of water is referred to baptism, and to be born of the Spirit refers to ones obedience unto the Spirits teaching, the N.T. (John 16:13). Jesus word excludes all who claim salvation by faith apart from obedience to the Gospel. The word "except" specifies one must submit to its stipulations in order to receive the benefits of Gods promise. Therefore, no one is born of God unless he has been baptized and been obeyed to the Gospel (Mark 16:16).

From verses 11 through 12, Jesus teaches the authority in religion is ascertained by His Heavenly testimony. Indeed, one is left to darkness apart from Gods objective standard (Jere.10:23). Many spiritual truths are beyond mens comprehension, such as the rite of baptism. Though there is no seeming connection between water baptism and the cleansing of sin, however, since God has chosen to purify sin in the act of baptism, men have to observe it. This is the foundation of Christianity, all authority are rested in Gods revelation. He demands mens total submission and obedience unto His word (John 12:48).

The doctrine of eternal life is taught in this chapter. It is found in the person of Christ Who is Gods Revealer for men (Heb.1:1-2), and the sin-offering for the world (2 Cor.5:21). Ones salvation is conditionated upon his faith in the Son of God, for God has decreed His Son to be the Savior of the world. This redemptive plan is based on Gods love for the lost (John 3:16). However, men might not receive this offering of love, because some of them hate to have their sins reproved by the truth, and love to live in unlawful pleasures.

Analytical Outline of John 4

Jesus the soul Winner of men

I. (1-3) Jesus avoids unnecessary confrontation.

A. (1-2) Jesus knows the Pharisees are envious of Him.

B. (3) Jesus departs from Judea unto Galilee.

II. (4-6) Jesus is wearied.

A. (4-5) He comes to Shechem of Samaria.

B. (6) He sit down at Jacobs well about the sixth hour.

III. (7-9) Jesus requests a drink from the Samaritan woman.

A. (7) The woman comes to the well and draws water.

B. (8) The disciples are gone into the town.

C. (9) The woman is surprised by Jesus request.

IV. (10-15) Jesus offers the living water unto her.

A. (10-12) The woman is amazed by Jesus word.

1. (10) The woman is ignorant of the gift of God.

2. (11) She is ignorant of spiritual truth.

3. (12) She wonders about Jesus offer.

B. (13-14) Jesus explains the nature of the living water unto her.

1. (13) It will satisfy the drinkers thirst.

2. (14) It will spring up into everlasting life.

C. (15) The woman requests for a drink of the living water.

V. (16-18) Jesus exposes the spiritual needs of the woman.

A. (16) Jesus exposes her sins.

B. (17) The woman tries to evade from her embarrassment.

C. (18) Jesus knows the secrets of men.

VI. (19-24) Jesus reveals the true worship.

A. (19) The woman acknowledge Jesus as a Prophet.

B. (20) She asks the place for true worship.

C. (21) The worship of the omnipresent God is not limited by location.

D. (22) Ones ignorance cannot worship God acceptably.

E. (23-24) The true worship of God must be in Spirit and in truth.

VII. (25-30) Jesus reveals to the woman that He is the Christ.

A. (25) The woman acknowledges the coming Christ will reveals the truth to all.

B. (26) Jesus claims He is the Christ.

C. (27) The disciples are astonished by the scene.

D. (28-30) The woman bursts into joy and witness the event to others.

VIII. (31-38) Jesus teaches His disciples on personal evangelism.

A. (31-34) Jesus explains the substance of men.

1. (31-33) The disciples are ignorant of Jesus spiritual meat.

2. (34) His spiritual meat is to do the Fathers will.

B. (35-38) The field is ready unto harvest.

1. (35) They should focus on the field.

2. (36) They shall reap joy and reward.

3. (37-38) They should follow the Lords method--preach the word.

IX. (39-42) Jesus reaps souls of His labor in evangelism.

A. (39) Many Samaritans believe on Jesus through the womans testimony.

B. (40) They urge Jesus to state with them.

C. (41) They place their faith in Christ by seeing and hearing Him.

D. (42) They know that He is the Savior of the world.

X. (43-45) Jesus does not state in His home town, Nazareth.

A. (43) He enters in the region of Galilee.

B. (44) He is rejected by the people of Nazareth.

C. (45) The Galileans receive Him gladly.

XI. (46-54) Jesus performs the second sign at Cana.

A. (46-47) A nobleman pleads for his son.

B. (48) Jesus rebukes the weakness of the Jews.

C. (49) The nobleman pleads that Jesus will come down and heal his son.

D. (50) He believes the word of Jesus that his son is healed.

E. (51-53a) His faith in Jesus is confirmed by His power.

F. (53b) His whole house believe on Jesus.

G. (54) The evangelist describes the event.

Exegetical Commentary of John 4

In this chapter, the evangelist recorded two evangelistic events of Jesus. The first one was among the Samaritans. Its circumstance was when Jesus knew the Pharisees were envious of His ministry in Judea, He departed from the regions of Judea unto Galilee, for He did not desire an unnecessary and immature confrontation with them. The Fathers hour had not come yet. He chose to journey through Samaria, a route which the Jews would not take, for they were prejudice against each other. The evangelist did not inform whether this choice was by Gods providence or His foreknowledge, but one thing was sure, that Jesus had interest to save the lost and crossed beyond any social barrier. When He and His disciples came to the hillside of Shechem, the city which many notably historical events had taken place, the disciples left their Master unto the town to buy food. Jesus therefore was by Himself next to the Jacobs well, and was wearied after a days journey. This fact demonstrates that He, though was Deity, yet was partaker of humanity, He could sympathize all our weakness and frailty (Heb.4:15-16). Then, a Samaritan woman came to the well and draw water from it. As a custom of the east, Jesus requested a drink of water from the woman. However, she was surprised by it, because He was apparent belong to the Jewish race, which despised the Samaritan and had no dealing with them. In spite of her astonishment, Jesus searched her inner needs, and offered her a drink of the living water. The woman was evidently stirred by His offer, and wondered at His word. Jesus then explained to her the nature of this living water, which was a metaphor used to represent His spiritual provision for His believers. By believing Jesus and obeying His word, one will be spiritually satisfied and will reap eternal life at the end. Though the woman did not fully comprehend Jesus offer, she asked for a drink of this living water from Jesus. However, Jesus knew that she was living in sin, He therefore exposed to her the wickedness and terribleness of sin. One must repent his sin before he could be blessed. God cannot compromise with sin, but will punish sin.

She who had five husbands in the past was shameful of her immoral life-style before Jesus. She therefore changed to the subject of worship for discussion in order to evade her embarrassment. There had been a hot dispute between the Jews and Samaritans about the place for worship. Jesus directed her mind to the New Covenant which He would establish that ones worship would not be limited by location. Also that, one must worship God in Spirit and in truth, which means one has to worship God with sincerity and according to Jesus word. After showing her the nature of true worship, Jesus revealed to her that He was the Messiah of God. Then, the woman bursted into joy, and ran back to the town, and witnessed to her acquaints about this good news.

Jesus disciples, however, were amazed by this scene, that Jesus would talk to a Samaritan woman. It was not the manner of the Jew to talk to a woman in the public, nor to a Samaritan. They nevertheless urged Him to partake the food which they had brought for Him. In stead of satisfying His physical hunger, Jesus preached a lesson of evangelism unto them. He first explained to them the true satisfaction and substance was to do and to finish the will of the Father. He did finish that redemption plan of God by going to the cross, and living perfectly to His will. Secondly, they must put their hearts into the harvest, and recognize the needs of saving the lost. Thirdly, they should rejoice in their works of evangelism, for they could save both themselves and others. Lastly, they should apply Gods method of sowing and of reaping, that is, by preaching the word of God. As soon as He finished the discourse, many Samaritans came to Jesus by the testimony of the woman, and urged Him to stay with them for two days. After that, they testified that Jesus was the Savior of the world. They did not receive that information from a second hand witness, but learned that fact themselves by hearing Him and knowing Him.

After that evangelistic efforts in Samaria, Jesus came to His home town Nazareth. Then, He departed unto the regions of Galilee, particularly Cana, because He was rejected by the people His own town. While He was in Cana, a nobleman of Capernaum came unto Him, whose son was at the point of death. He therefore urged Jesus to go with him and to heal his son, but Jesus rebuked His audience that they were so faithless in His word and Person. They would believe only on a testimony of miracle. Jesus, however, tested the faith of the nobleman by saying unto him, "Go thy way, thy son liveth" (John 4:50). It was such an authoritative command, and the man believed on His word, and eased from his anxiety. The next day, he returned his way to Capernaum, and learned from his servant that his son was healed on same hour when Jesus uttered that command. Then, his faith in Jesus person and authority was confirmed. He and his whole house believed on the Son of God. The evangelist therefore remarked that this was the second sign which Jesus did in Galilee. This was a sign because there was significant effects on the beholders, who believed in the Person Who performed that miracle (John 20:30-31).

Doctrinal Summary of John 4

In this chapter, the humanity of Jesus is seen. On the journey to Samaria, He was wearied and thirsty. Though He was by nature Deity, yet when He came to the world, He partook the nature of man (Heb.2:14-18). So that, He might be the perfect Offering of God. By showing to the Samaritan woman that He was the living water, Jesus showed to the world that He was the One Who could provide and satisfy the spiritual needs of men. He could quench mens spiritual thirst, and fill their spiritual hunger. He is the "way, truth, and the life", He will give men an "abundant life" (John 14:6; 10:10). He is also represented as the Savior of the world. Though He did no miracles in Samaria, yet by His teaching and testimony, many Samaritans believed that He was the Savior for them and for the rest of human race. Jesus saved men by dying for them, and giving a word of life to them. So that, they that believe on His word and obey Him may be saved (2 Thess.1:7-9). Jesus also revealed to the woman that He was the Messiah of God, the anointed One of God prophesied in the O.T. scriptures. He was the appointed One of God to finish His redemptive plan, and to reveal His last will and testament. From the healing of the noblemans son, Jesus was recognized to be the Lord that was over nature, and His power was not limited by any geographical distance. His healing was complete and significant. By this mighty and significant work, the whole house of the nobleman became Jesus believers.

Besides, there are two major teachings recorded by the evangelist, they are the true worship of God and the lesson on evangelism. Concerning worship, one must worship God in Spirit and in truth. Here we have (1) the object of worship is God, and (2) the attitude in worship is Spirit, which means sincerity, and (3) the obligation of worship is must, and (4) the pattern of worship is the truth, and (5) the way to please God is worship Him. One must follow this formula in worshipping God. Concerning evangelism, one must determine to do it, since it is commanded by Heavenly authority (Mat.28:18-20). One should be joyful in doing the Fathers will, because he can reap reward of eternal life, and save others at the same time (1 Tim.4:16). Lastly, one must adopt Gods method of sowing and reaping, that is, by preaching of the Gospel, since faith is produced by Gods word (Rom.10:17).

Analytical Outline of John 5

Jesus is supreme in authority

I. (1-9) Jesus heals impotent man of a Sabbath day.

A. (1-5) The circumstance of healing is given.

1. (1) The time of healing is given.

2. (2) The place of healing is given.

3. (3-4) The expectation of healing is given.

4. (5) The condition of the impotent man is given.

B. (6-9) The manner of healing is related.

1. (6) Jesus addresses the impotent mans needs.

2. (7) Jesus sympathizes the mans pity.

3. (8) The command is uttered by Jesus.

4. (9) The efficacy of His word is related.

II. (10-16) The Jews are angry of Jesus in breaking their Sabbath tradition.

A. (10-12) The Pharisees are concerned about their traditions.

B. (13-14) Jesus concerns the spiritual well-being of men.

C. (15-16) They are even willing to kill one on the Sabbath day.

III. (17-18) Jesus defends His case in doing good deed on the Sabbath.

A. (17) God is not idle on the Sabbath Day.

B. (17) Jesus therefore follows the Fathers way.

C. (18) The Pharisees charge Jesus speaking blasphemy.

IV. (19-47) Jesus proves His Divine Sonship.

A. (19-23) All men should honor the Son of God.

1. (19) He and the Father are one.

2. (20) The Father loves the Son.

3. (21) The Son has power to quicken the dead.

4. (22) The Son has power to execute judgement.

5. (23) The Father decrees all men should honor the Son.

B. (24-30) The Son is the source of eternal life.

1. (24-25) Life is promised to those who believe Jesus word.

2. (26-30) His authority is given by the Father.

a. (26) God has given Him life in Himself.

b. (27) God has given Him authority to execute judgement.

c. (28-29) His word is the criteria for eternal judgement unto every man.

d. (30) His word is the will of the Father.

C. (31-47) Jesus gives the witnesses that testify His claim.

1. (31-35) John the Baptizer bears witness of Jesus.

2. (36) The mighty works of Jesus bear witness of Jesus.

3. (37-38) The Father bears witness of Jesus.

4. (39-40) The scriptures bear witness of Jesus.

5. (41-44) The ground of their unbelief is given.

6. (45-47) Moses bears witness of Jesus.

Exegetical Commentary of John 5

In this chapter, the evangelist recorded Jesus discourse concerning His supremacy. The discourse was delivered when Jesus was accused by the Pharisees. They charged Him breaking their traditions in keeping the Sabbath. Although the Law commanded the Israelites not to work on that day, there were apparent exceptions in observing that law, as Jesus had discussed in various settings (Mat.12:5). It was indeed lawful to do good deeds on the Sabbath. However, the Pharisees interpreted the law of Sabbath wrongly, and enforced the Jews to observe their man-made traditions. Jesus came to fulfill the law of God given to Moses, Who lived sinlessly and perfectly in it, but He did not approved human tradition (Mat.15:9). The incident began when Jesus came to Jerusalem during the feast of the Passover. This was the second Passover which He observed after His public ministry. When He approached a poor called Bethesda, there were a multitude of sick people who waited for the moving of the water, and believed the first one that jumped in it would be healed by an angel of God. Among this flock of people, there was an impotent man, who had an infirmity for 38 years. Jesus then approached him and addressed to his need, asking him whether he wanted to be whole. Immediately, the man responded to him, and complained his case to Him. With Heavenly authority, Jesus commanded him, "Rise, take thy bed, and walk" (John 5:8). It was a wonderful word, for Jesus had no doubt that He was able to heal this man. Such powerful word proved that He was the Son of God. However, when the Jews noticed the impotent man carried the bed, they found fault with him. They should have rejoiced for his healing, but unnaturally they were indifferent and cruel to the suffering of the afflicted, and were mad in observing their own tradition. When they found out Jesus was the Man Who broke their tradition, they sought to kill Him. Nevertheless, Jesus defended that it was lawful for Him to heal on the Sabbath Day, for the Father did worked on it in sustaining the universe. The Pharisees were more angry in hearing this, because Jesus claimed Himself to be equal with the Father. They charged Him speaking blasphemy. It was upon this charge, Jesus expounded this great discourse concerning His Divinity and supremacy. First, He and the Father were one. Such claim represented that He was preexistent and eternal. Moreover, He did only what the Father authorized Him to do. Therefore, the Jews had charged their God to have sinned. Secondly, the Jews should honor Jesus, because by honoring Him they honored the Father that had sent Him. God had given Him power to raise the dead, and to judge all men. Thirdly, the Father had given Him the authority to give life to whomsoever the Son wished. Jesus was Deity Himself, for life was originated in Him, but creatures were sustained by their Creator. It was by His word of life that He quickened the spiritual dead (John 6:63). Men have to hear, to believe, and to obey His life-giving word in order to obtain life in the Son (Rom.1:16-17). The word is also the standard for judgement on the last day. All men will hear the powerful voice of Jesus, and be raised from the dead, and be judged by this word. Jesus indeed is the righteous Judge, Who knows all the weakness of men, and sympathizes their trials and temptations, because He is the Man Jesus. Also that, He did not reveal His own will, but the Fathers. Therefore, His judgement is just and righteous. Jesus then offered to the Jews five witnesses to sustain His claim as Deity. In the Jewish law, two or three witnesses would settle a dispute. Jesus therefore first pointed to the witness of John the Baptizer. John had testified in many settings that Jesus was the Coming One, the Christ of God (John 1:31-34). Though he was man, yet his testimony was true. Secondly, Jesus appealed to the mighty works which God had testified of Him (Acts 2:21-23). These supernatural works should clearly distinguished Him to be the Anointed One. Thirdly, the Father Himself also bore testimony to Jesus. The Divine approval was witnessed in Jesus baptism (Mat.3:14-17). Fourthly, the O.T. Scriptures had written of Him. He was the theme, fulfillment, aims, and fulfillment of the Law, Prophets, and wisdom writings. The Jews searched the Scriptures for obtaining eternal life, but they missed the summation of the Holy Scriptures. Lastly, Moses whom the Jews respected highly also testified of Jesus. It was sad that the Jews claimed to adhere to the Law of Moses, but in rejecting Jesus, they had rejected the Law, and they would be condemned by the Law. Not only did Jesus gave them these five witnesses, He also exposed the cause of their unbelief. They did not have the love of God in them and they received honor from men. Pride probably was the root of their problem. By it, they did that which was right in their own eyes, such as, making law for God, rejecting His authority. No doubt, Solomon saith, "Pride goeth before destruction, and an haughty spirit before a fall" (Prov.16:18).

Doctrinal Summary of John 5

In the incident of Jesus healing of the impotent man, we learn that the object of faith must be Jesus. In the multitude of sick people, they put their faith in the moving water, believing an angel would heal the first person that jumped into the pool. Jesus drew the mans mind to place his faith in Him, and rewarded him with wholeness. Jesus still heals all spiritual illness of men. The second lesson is the consequence of sin is more terrible than suffering sickness for 38 years (John 5:14). True, the punishment of sin is eternal death (Rom.6:23; Isa.59:1-2).

In this chapter, many things are spoken regarding the Son of God. (1) He was equal with God, for as the Father worked on the Sabbath to sustain the universe, He did work on the Sabbath to heal an impotent man (John 5:17). (2) He was One with the Father (John 5:19). This claim shows He is preexistent and eternal. (3) He has the power to raise the dead. By His shout, all the dead shall raise. (4) He has the power to quicken the spiritual death. It is through His life-giving word (John 5:24). (5) He is the Judge of all men. This authority is decreed by God, and He will execute righteous judgement, because He is the Son of Man. (6) He is to be honored by all men, for He is supreme and Deity. All men will bow before Him one day whether they like it or not, for He is the Lord of lords (Phil.2:7-9). (7) He has life in Himself. Only God can have life in Himself, creature is sustained by the Creator. (8) He is the Son of Man. He is the partaker of humanity, and can sympathize with all weakness of men (Heb.4:16-17). In summary, all the works He did upon the earth was by the Fathers authority and approval (John 5:17, 20).

There are five witnesses offered to support His claim. They are (1) the testimony of John the Baptizer, and (2) the mighty works which Jesus had done in the Fathers name, and (3) the Fathers testimony of His Son, and (4) the Scriptures, and (5) the Law of Moses.

Analytical Outline of John 6

Jesus, the Living Bread.

I. (1-15) Jesus feeds the five thousand men.

A. (1-4) The circumstance is given.

1. (1) Jesus withdraws to another side of Galilee.

2. (2) A great multitude follow Jesus.

3. (3) Jesus and His disciples go up into a mountain.

4. (4) The time is near the Passover.

B. (5-13) The feeding is related.

1. (5a) Jesus is compassionate to the need of the multitude.

2. (5b-9) Jesus tries His disciples faith by testing them.

3. (10-13) Jesus multiplies the food and feeds the men abundantly.

C. (14-15) The effect of the sign is recorded.

1. (14) The multitude believe Jesus is the Prophet.

2. (15) Jesus refuses to be crowned an earthly king by the crowd.

II. (16-21) Jesus walks on the water.

A. (16-18) The circumstance is given.

B. (19-21) The sign is eye witnessed and recorded.

III. (22-71) The discourse on the Bread of Life is recorded.

A. (22-24) The circumstance is given.

B. (25-40) Jesus is the answer for life.

1. (25-27) Labor for the bread which lasts forever.

2. (28-29) The manner of laboring is to believe in Jesus.

3. (30-33) Jesus is the provision from Heaven.

4. (34-36) Jesus satisfies every spiritual need.

5. (37-40) Jesus is the source of eternal life.

C. (41-51) Jesus is the Bread of Life.

1. (41-42) The Jews doubt about Jesus identity and promise.

2. (43-46) Only those who have learned of the Father come to Jesus.

3. (47-51) He is the living Bread for spiritual need, but not for physical.

D. (52-58) One must partake the Bread of Life in order to live.

1. (52) The Jews puzzle about His teaching.

2. (53-54) Jesus affirms Life is given to one who partakes this spiritual bread.

3. (55-56) He and those who partake this spiritual meal are united as one.

4. (57-58) Heavenly life is found in Jesus, the bread of Life.

E. (59-71) The effect of the discourse is recorded.

1. (59) He teaches the same discourse in the synagogue.

2. (60-62) His disciples murmur against Jesus saying.

3. (63-65) He sets the conditions of fellowship.

4. (66) Many disciples leave Jesus.

5. (67-69) Very few follow Him, but are firm of His identity.

6. (70-71) One disloyal disciple remains with Jesus.

Exegetical Commentary of John 6

In this chapter, the evangelist recorded two signs of Jesus and His discourse of the Bread of Life. By studying this chapter, one cannot but see that most of the people recorded here did not understand Jesus mission was to bless them with spiritual life, but they mistakenly focus upon the temporal realm. The first sign related here is the feeding of five thousand men. The time of the event was when Jesus withdrew Himself from Judea unto the sea coast of Galilee, because He tried to avoid immature conflict with the Jewish leaders. It was near the third Passover after Jesus had begun His public ministry, and John the Baptizer was just beheaded by Herod the Antipas. Therefore, Jesus must be sad and grief for His forerunner. Anyhow, a great multitude followed Him after seeing His mighty healing work among the sick. Jesus had compassion unto them who had followed Him a whole day, and intended to satisfy their hunger, lest they would be faint on the way. Though knowing what He would do to feed the crowd, Jesus took advantage of this occasion, and tried His apostles faith in Him. Nevertheless, they failed in this seeming difficulty, for there were so many people, and they had so little substance. They had forgotten their Master had the authority even over nature. Jesus therefore took charge of the setting. After giving thanks to the Father, He multiplied the five loaves and two fishes in feeding the multitude. He provision was abundant, that there were twelve baskets of fragment left. Today, Jesus still has the power to multiply our efforts in evangelism. We just have to do our part in reaching out, and teaching the Gospel; He will give the increase. The people, seeing this wonderful miracle, were persuaded that He was the Prophet Whom Moses had predicted (Deut.18:15-18). They had a false concept of the Messiah, thinking that He was a military leader. Therefore, they tried to enforce Him to be their temporal King, in order that they might receive material blessing from Him, and be released from the rule of the Romans. But Jesus refused to be made an earthly monarch, for He came to save their spiritual life, and to deliver from the bondage of sin. He then withdrew Himself from the multitude, He desired only true discipleship of Him (John 8:31-32). When He went up to the mountain, His disciples departed unto Capernaum by a boat. While the disciples were on their journey, there arose a storm in the night time. During this perilous moment, Jesus came unto them by walking on the water, they gladly received Him into the boat. The sea was calm and they sailed to their desired destiny. This incident demonstrates that Jesus is the Master of the sea and wind. Then, the next day, when the people could not find Jesus, nor His disciples. They departed unto Capernaum to find Jesus. When they found Jesus on the other side of Galilee, Jesus gave this great discourse about the Bread of Life, because they focused on mainly temporal things, and misunderstood Jesus mission.

First, Jesus urged them to focus on spiritual food which lasted forever, whereas temporal food only suited for a while. The way to labor for this spiritual food was to believe in Him, for this was the work of God (John 6:29). The people, however, doubted the words of Jesus, and inquired about the "manna" which God gave the forefathers to eat. Indeed, they should believed His words, because they had previously seen His miraculous deeds, which should substantiate His claim. Jesus directed their mind to spiritual needs, and promised them that He was the spiritual Bread, and be able to satisfy their spiritual hunger. Moreover, this bread can impart eternal life unto the partaker. Then, some Jews, probably the Pharisees, were skeptical about Jesus claim of coming down from Heaven, and did not believe it because they knew His earthly ancestry. Jesus defended that they could not accept His teaching because they did not know the Fathers teaching, the O.T. He again emphasized that He was their spiritual provision, Who could provide their spiritual needs, and eternal life, for they were senseless to His teaching because they only pursued the temporal needs. Most amazingly, He Himself was the One Who gave His life in order the whole world might have an opportunity to receive eternal life (1 Tim.2:4-6). On this lesson, many of His followers left Him, but they were not His true believers. They followed Jesus only out of selfish motive, but not for the right reason. Jesus did not compromise with wrong nor liberal teaching. He taught the word of God. Nevertheless, many loyal disciples did follow Him, for their faith was genuine, knowing that He was the Christ. However, one disloyal disciple stayed within the group unawarely by men, but Jesus knew it. He was Judas, who would deliver his Friend to the religious leader.

Doctrinal Summary of John 6

In this chapter, we see that Christs spiritual teaching was misunderstood by most of the followers. To them, the temporal world was their main concern, and they therefore could not perceive His teaching. Christ was portrayed as the "Bread from Heaven", and spiritual satisfaction and substance were only found in Him. He revealed His Heavenly origin to His followers, and promised them life eternal if they partook this spiritual food. By the two signs which He performed, He was demonstrated as the Lord of nature, where the sea and wind obeyed His command, and that He could multiplied "the Five loaves and two fishes" to feed five thousand men (with their wives and children). In explaining He was the "Bread of Life" and gave His life for the life of the world, Jesus revealed His atoning death, and sacrificial offering for sinners. However, He also set condition for obtaining that gift of forgiveness and reward of eternal life. The conditions is that, they must partake that spiritual food, which means to listen and to obey His will.

From the first sign of Jesus recorded in verses 1 to 15, we learn Jesus has the power to multiply. It is applicable today, when Christian engage to do Gods will, Christ will multiply their labors, and many people will be benefited from His blessings (e.g. evangelism, preaching). In Jesus offering thanks to God for the food, we learn that Children of God need also to offer thank for their food. Since God provides all physical and spiritual blessings for them. In Christs commanding His disciples to gather up the fragments of the food, we see that God forbids wastefulness. Perhaps many are not only guilty of wasting material goods, not more seriously, spiritual abilities. We must be faithful in our work for God! In Jesus second sign of walking on water, we see that He is concerned for His followers, He will aid them in time of tumult and trials. It is a lesson of trust for Christian to trust in His power.

In Jesus discourse of the "Bread of Life", we learn that (1) our primary pursuit must be spiritual or Heavenly, for its result lasts for eternity (John 6:27). (2) The method of laboring spiritual food is to believe in Jesus. He tells us to believe in Him means to listen and to obey His word (John 8:30-31). (3) He is our spiritual substance and satisfaction, and source of eternal life (John 6:63). (4) The method of God drawing disciples for Jesus is by His word (John 6:44-45). God does not use any miraculous power to draw men to Christ, but by the Gospel (Rom.1:16-17; 10:17). We see also Christs criteria for discipleship is strait. He will not compromise with error or insincerity. One must obey His word whole-heartedly in order to be His disciple (Mark 8:35-36).

Analytical Outline of John 7

The peoples different opinions of Jesus origin.

I. (1-13) The beginning of the feast of tabernacle is described.

A. (1-2) The circumstance is given.

1. (1) The scene is related (The Jews wanted to kill Jesus).

2. (2) The time is recorded.

B. (3-5) The attitude of Jesus brethren is described.

1. (3) The counsel they offer.

2. (4) The argument they use.

3. (5) The spirit they have.

C. (6-10) Jesus reaction is recorded.

1. (6-8) His time is not yet at hand.

2. (9-10) He goes to Jerusalem privately.

D. (11-13) The undecided multitude are described.

1. (11) They look for Jesus.

2. (12) Their opinions are divided.

3. (13) They are fearful of men, but not of God.

II. (14-36) The middle of the Feast is depicted.

A. (14-18) Jesus proves the Divine origin of His doctrine.

1. (14-15) His doctrine surprises the Jews.

2. (16) His doctrine is Divinely commissioned.

3. (17) His doctrine is appreciated by the sincere to be Divine.

4. (18) His doctrine is perfect and sinless.

B. (19-24) Jesus proves that He has been righteous in healing the impotent man on a

Sabbath day previously (18 months ago).

1 (19-22) Jesus offers two premises.

a. (19-20) Jesus accuses them violating the Law.

b. (21-22) Jesus shows their inconsistence in observing their traditions.

2. (23-24) Jesus concludes that they should judge righteous judgement.

C. (25-32) The question of Jesusorigin is meet.

1. (25-27) The people have different opinions about His origin.

2. (28-29) They do not know His Divinity because they do not know God.

3. (30-32) The different responses to His defense of origin.

D. (33-36) Jesus announces His destiny.

1. (33-34) He will return to God soon.

2. (35-36) The peoples bewilderment is described.

III. (37-53) His teaching resumed at the last day of the Feast.

A. (37-39) Jesus is the Fountain of Life.

1. (37) Jesus offers an invitation to the people.

2. (38) Jesus promises to quench their spiritual needs.

3. (39) This promise is explained by the evangelist.

B. (40-44) The people have different opinions about His identity.

C. (45-53) The Sanhedrin is convened.

1. (45-46) The officers confess Jesus majesty.

2. (47-49) The leaders are ignorant and harden their heart.

3. (50-52) A friendly defense of truth is silenced by a sneer.

4. (53) The assembly is divided.

Exegetical Commentary of John 7

There was about a year time span from end of chapter six to the beginning of chapter seven. Now, Jesus was known to the people both in Judea and Galilee, because of His wonder and mighty ministry among them. There were, however, different attitudes toward His identity and claim. Some people held that He was the Christ, some doubted it, some had a shallow faith in Him, some even were hatred against Him and determined to kill Him. In this chapter, the evangelist described this different attitudes and opinions, which the people of Jerusalem had regarding Jesus origin. This event occurred during the feast of the Tabernacle, which was observed by the Jews at the end of September to the beginning of October. Its observance was to commemorate Gods provision for the nation Israel in their forty years wilderness wandering. They were to made tents and dwelt in them for seven days, in order to recall the significance of the event (Lev.23:34-36, 39-43). They were to rejoice before the Lord for the increase which He had blessed them (Deut.16:13-15). It was six months before Jesus went to Jerusalem to observe His last Passover on the earth. The narrative starts with a conversation of Jesus with His earthly brothers who disbelieved His Messiahship. They were still in the region of Galilee, and Jesus brother urged Him to go up to Jerusalem, and to manifest His claim before the public. Their argument was if He was the Messiah, He ought to reveal His works before the people in Jerusalem, since it was the religious capital of the country. Jesus refused to listen to their counsel, and replied that it was not yet the time for Him to reveal His identity. He would not put Himself into immature and unnecessary peril, but submitted Himself to the Fathers plan. He, however, went up to Jerusalem privately after their departure for Jerusalem.

The scene of Jerusalem was described as confusion by the evangelist, for the Jews were divided in their opinions concerning this Great Teacher. They would not openly assert their opinion of Him for fear of the civil and religious leaders, but murmured with their mouth. Then, in the midst of the feast, Jesus stood up in the temple and taught the people. The Jews, particularly the scribes and the Pharisees, were astonished at His teaching, for they knew that Jesus was not educated in their Jewish rabbinical school. Perceiving their thoughts, Jesus therefore expounded to them the Divine origin of His teaching. He told them that His teaching was not from men, neither any Jewish rabbis, but from God. They would know the truthfulness and perfectness of His teaching if they had honest and sincere heart. He substantiated His claim with the premises that (1) He did not glorify Himself, but God, and (2) His teaching was righteous and accurate. Then He defended His case in healing an impotent man on a Sabbath day some 18 months ago. The two premises which He offered for His innocency are: (1) The Jews themselves broke the law of Moses in having the ill intention to kill Him, and (2) the Jews themselves worked on the Sabbath Day in observing the rite of circumcision. Therefore, the Jews were inconsistent in their traditions keeping. Also that, Jesus was innocence of doing good on the Sabbath Day, for the Law of Moses did allow the Jews to do good on that day. After proving His case, He urged them to exercise righteous and unbiased judgement. The perfect standard for judgement is the word of God (John 12:48). Then, there was a dispute among the people about the origin of Christ. Some held that He was the Christ because of His indisputable teaching and moral courage, but some argued that He was not the Christ because they knew His earthly origin. To this question, Jesus replied that they did not know His Divine origin because they were ignorant of God. The chief priests and Pharisees sent the temple officers to arrest Jesus, because they were envious of peoples reception of Jesus, for some held Him as the Messiah (John 7:31). However, the officers failed this command, because He taught with such authority and majesty. In the last day of the Feast, Jesus stood up again, and uttered an invitation for the people to come unto Him. He also promised to provide all their spiritual needs. The evangelist explained that it was fulfilled in the promise of the Spirit. Yes, the word of God furnishes men unto every good work and provides men every spiritual need (2 Tim.3:16-17). There was again a division among the people responding to Jesus claim and promise. The Sanhedrin, the civil judicial court of the Jewish nation, convened a counsel in determination of killing Jesus. The assembly again was separated and dismissed for the different opinions about Jesus.

Doctrinal Summary of John 7

From verses 1 to 9, we see the submission of Jesus is described. He, though was challenged by His earthly brothers about His claim, was not provoked to prove His Messiah out of vain glory. But He submitted Himself to God plan, and acted upon His guidance. On the other hand, we see the unbelieving attitude of His earthly brother. Though they were so near to Jesus, yet they did not know Him. There is always a danger for people who are closed to the believers. Often time, they will ridicule the believers as foolish, and shut their mind to the truth.

In this chapter, the attitudes of people in Jerusalem are depicted. They had different opinions and responses to Jesus identity and claim. Some were fickle, indecisive, and doubtful to the teaching of Christ. They failed to investigate the matter properly, or they just did not have interest in religion, or they adhered to the man made traditions of Judaism. They were fearful of men, but not of God. It is the same today, the vast majority of the people have no interest in religion, nor in Christ. Some, however, had conviction in Jesus word, and believed His claim. Sadly, the religious and civil leaders were hostile to the truth, and inconsistent with their honesty, and hypocritical in living, and deceptive to the simple, and lusting for vain glory, and slanderous against the good.

We learn the doctrine of Christ is Divine and perfect in this chapter. (1) His teaching was not from men, nor from human tradition, but from God (John 7:16). (2) Every that is sincere and open-minded will know His doctrine is perfect and infallible. (3) His doctrine is righteous and sinless. (4) The scriptures is indestructible, for "the law of Moses cannot be broken" (John 7:23).

Jesus is portrayed as the Fountain of Life in verses 37-39. He promised to satisfy the spiritual needs of those who would come to Him. Only those who are conscious of their need will come to Christ (1 Cor.1:18). The evangelist explained this Living water was the teaching of the Holy Spirit.

Analytical Outline of John 8

Jesus, the Light of the world, was rejected by the people.

I. (1-11) Jesus is tempted by the Jews on His judgement unto an adulterous woman.

A. (1-3) The circumstance is given.

B. (4-6a) The plot of the tempters is related.

1. (4-5) The crafty question is asked.

2. (6a) Their wicked motive is exposed.

C. (6b-9) Jesus is triumph over the dilemma.

1. (6b, 8) The calmness of Jesus is depicted.

2. (7) Jesus solemn verdict is announced upon the tempters.

3. (9) Their hearts are pricked.

D. (10-11) Jesus is merciful to the woman.

1. (10) A heart searching question is asked.

2. (11) Jesus exhortation of repentance is given.

II. (12-29) Jesus is the Light of the world.

A. (12-13) Jesus claim and promise are objected by the Jews.

B. (14-18) Jesus offers premises to substantiate His claim and promise.

1. (14) He has perfect knowledge of His origin and destiny.

2. (15-16) His judgement is true.

3. (17-18) The Father testifies His claim.

C. (19-20) The Jews did not believe His claim.

D. (21-30) He speaks to the unbelieving Jews.

1. (21-24) They will die in their sins.

a. (21-23) He will return to Heaven.

b. (24) They shall die in their sin if they refuse to believe His claim.

2. (25-29) Jesus gives another discourse about Himself.

a. (25) He is the same from the beginning.

b. (26) He speaks the Fathers word.

c. (27) The evangelists melancholy remark is remarked.

d. (28) His death will convict their unbelief in rejecting Him.

e. (29) He is obedient to the Father.

III. (30-59) Jesus promise of freedom is rejected.

A. (30) The listeners are described.

B. (31-32) The promise is given to those who walk in truth.

C. (33-36) They are slaves of sins.

D. (37-42) Their physical descent does not secure ones standing before God.

E. (43-47) They are proven to be servants of the Devil by their deeds.

F. (48-50) Jesus judgement is just and true.

G. (51-58) Jesus is greater than Abraham.

H. (59) The rejection of the Jews is depicted.

Exegetical Commentary of John 8

In this chapter, the evangelist recorded Jesus activities on the last day of the Feast of Tabernacle, which can be classified in three sections. They are: (1) His judgement on the adulterous woman (verse 1-11), (2) His speech to the religious leaders (verse 12-29), and (3) His words to the nominal believers (verse 30-59). In summary, Jesus spiritual teaching about Himself, and the Father, and their responsibilities was not understood and received by the people at Jerusalem, who were materialistic minded and expecting an earthly monarch. They therefore rejected His claim and Person.

The narrative starts with Jesus teaching at the temple court in the morning. Many people came and sat down before the miracle-Worker, and listened to His word, for Jesus fame had been known among all the regions of Judea and Galilee by His mighty ministry. While He was teaching the people, the religious leaders came and tempted Him. Their plot was almost insurmountable, for they brought unto Him a woman--who was caught in the act of adultery--and challenged Him to pass a judgement on this incident. According to the law, she should be stoned, but the Jews were under the jurisdiction of the Romans, and were not allowed to execute death penalty on the case of sexual immorality. So, it was seemingly a dilemma, Jesus could neither answer yes nor no, because He would violate the law of Moses or the law of Romans in these two answers. Therefore, the Jews thought they could pass the sentence of death unto Jesus by His judgement. Indeed, they were so hypocritical, for the Law commanded the first one that caught the adulterer should cast the first stone. They themselves had violated Gods command at the outset. Moreover, their motive of killing Jesus was an violation of the Law of Moses. They claimed that they were adherents and loyal to the Law, but yet were so inconsistent to their profession. However, Jesus was triumphant over their plot, which proved Himself to be the Son of God. He convicted their conscience by saying that "he that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her" (John 8:7). The accusers left the scene, and Jesus was there alone with the woman, for He was sinless. Then, Jesus extended mercy to the woman, and urged her not to sin anymore. Jesus came to offer mercy and salvation to sinners if they would repent of their sins and obey His word.

Then, Jesus spoke again to the audience that He was "the Light of the world" (John 8:12).

He referred Himself as the "Pillar of fire", which guided the Israelites from their forty years of wilderness wandering into the promised land. Its significance is that He is the Revealer of Gods word to guide ones the spiritual journey from the world to Heaven. Jesus, being objected by the religious leaders, proved His claim before the multitude. His premises were: (1) He had perfect knowledge of His claim and person, Who knew His origin, and mission, and destiny perfectly, and (2) His judgement was true, for He spoke only Gods word, and (3) the Father testified His message was true by miraculous works. Jesus then addressed to them that He would soon depart from them, and they would die in their sins because they refused to believe on His person and claim. Since He was from Heaven and lived according to Gods decree, but they were earthly and focused on the material. Though Jesus spoke so plain unto them about the truth, and He substantiated His claim by His mighty ministry, yet they would not believe Him.

During this conversation, some Jews came unto Him, and professed their faith in Him. Jesus then addressed unto them, and offered them freedom from sins. He also set the criteria for discipleship, that one must continue in His teaching. His promise was refused by these nominal believers who recognized themselves to be Abrahams seed and regarded themselves as freemen, but they misunderstood His spiritual promise totally. Then, Jesus explained to them that their physical descent did not make them Gods spiritual children, and that true spiritual children of Abraham would believe on Him and obey His word. He also revealed to them that He was greater than Abraham, Who was the existing One from eternity (John 8:58). The Jews were mad to His claim, and took up stones to cast at Him. Jesus hid Himself from them, and left them, seeing their unbelief and rejection.

Doctrinal Summary of John 8

In this chapter, Jesus characters are portrayed in various fashions. (1) He was the sinless One, Who "was tempted in all points as we are, yet without sin" (Heb.4:15). When the Pharisees tempted Jesus with a dilemma concerning the adulterous woman, He challenged them to cast the first stone to her if they were sinless. Then, all were convicted of their sin, for "all hath sinned" (Rom. 3:23), and they left the scene. But while Jesus remained there, He claimed that He was sinless (John 8:7-10). He was proved that He was sinless by asking His enemies to point out His sins. They were not able to prove it, because He was perfect and sinless. (2) He was the "Light of the world" (John 8:12). He is the Light that can illuminate men spiritually, and guide them in their journey from the world unto Heaven, for He is the perfect and final Revealer of God (Heb.1:1-2). (3) He was the eternal One and the existing One, Who is "the same yesterday, today, and forever" (Heb.13:8). He is the immutable One, Who does not change (John 8:25; 2 Pet.3:9). Also, before the world came into being, He had always been existing (John 1:1; 8:58). (4) He possessed perfect knowledge of Gods word, and His origin, and His destiny (John 8:14). It proved that He was Deity. Men could learn of Gods truth only by Divine revelation through writing or teaching of others, but Jesus knowledge of Gods word was originated in Him. (5) He was the perfect sin Offering. He spoke to the unbelievers that they would be convicted of their unbelief when He died on the cross (John 8:28). Though Jesus spoke so plainly to them, yet they did not understand His word. But they would be conscious of their rebellion and sin after His death, for the Holy Spirit would direct the apostles to preach the Gospel to them.

The question of sin is discussed in this chapter. Whoever commits sin or violates Gods law is a slave of sin (John 8:34), and such one will die in his sins. This death is referring to eternal punishment or Hell. Freedom of sin, or emancipation from sin is given to those who believe on Jesus. To believe on Him means one must continue to abide in His teaching (John 8:32). Ones religious privilege does not change his standing before God, but ones standing before God is determined by his own responsibilities and deeds.

Analytical Outline of John 9

Jesus is the Light of the world.

I. (1-7) Jesus opens the eyes of a born blind man.

A. (1-5) Jesus declares He is the Light of the world.

1. (1-3) Jesus answers the question of suffering.

2. (4-5) Jesus is ready to do good.

B. (6-7) Jesus heals the man.

1. (6-7a) Jesus commands him.

2. (7b) The man believes and obeys.

II. (8-12) The man testifies to the people.

A. (8-9) The man identifies his personality.

B. (10-11) The man relates his healing.

C. (12) The man does not have perfect knowledge about Jesus.

III. (13-17) The man testifies before the Pharisees.

A. (13) The man is brought to the Pharisees.

B. (14-15) The man relates his healing unto them.

C. (16) The testimony cause a division of opinions.

D. (17) The man holds Jesus to be a Prophet.

IV. (18-23) The mans healing is established an indisputable fact.

A. (18-20) The mans parents confirm that their son was born blind.

B. (21-22) They refuse to confess Christ for fear of the Jews.

V. (24-34) The Pharisees try to distort the truth.

A. (24-25) They intimidate him

B. (26-27) They try to entangle him.

C. (28-29) They revile him.

D. (30-33) The man defends Jesus is a righteous man.

E. (34-34) They expel him from the synagogue.

VI. (35-38) The man is converted to Christ.

A. (35-36) Faith in Jesus is required.

C. (37) Faith must be according to revelation.

D. (38) Faith is perfected in works.

VII. (39-41) The Pharisees are condemned in rejecting the Light.

A. (39) Judgement is upon those who reject the Light.

B. (40) Their spiritual blindness is voluntary.

C. (41) Their sin is inexcusable.

Exegetical Commentary of John 9

In this chapter, the evangelist clearly portrayed Jesus as the"Light of the world" (John 9:5). This fact is illustrated in Jesus healing of the born blind man, and the spiritual teaching which He had given. The event is summarized by the conversion of the born blind who received the Light--Jesus Person and teaching. In contrast, the religious leaders rejected the Light, who were physically sound in eye-sight, but voluntarily closed their mind to the truth.

The narrative starts with a discourse between Jesus and His disciples concerning the question of sufferings. When they approached the temple, they saw a beggar who was born blind. The disciples then inquired their Master about the cause of his blindness. Jesus answered that his blindness was not caused by his sin, nor his parents. He corrected the wrong view about human suffering. However, He did not direct them to the cause of suffering, but instructed them how to do with sufferings. Jesus showed them that they should work for Gods glory while there was times. It means that they should always be ready to do good for the afflicted. He then healed the mans blindness in proving His claim, that He was the "Light of the world" (John 9:5). The healing was consummated when the man obeyed Jesus command, in going to the pool of Siloam, and washing his eyes with its water. Even salvation is conditioned on ones obedience to His Gospel (Mark 16:16). The design of healing was not an act of Divine mercy only, but also had a spiritual lesson for the people (John 20:30-31). Jesus was not to open physical eye-sight primarily, but to open the spiritual eyes of those who were in darkness. It would be impossible for them to know their sins and follies, unless there be light given to illuminate them. Also, they would not able to direct their steps to Heaven unless there be revelation given by Divine authority (Jere.10:23). In His Person, work, and teaching, He was the final and perfect Revealer of Gods will (Heb.1:1-2).

After relating the event of healing, the evangelist recorded the conversion of the born blind who received the Divine illumination. Soon after regaining his eye-sight, he gave testimony about his wonderful experience to others. He first confirmed to his neighbors about the miraculous deeds of Jesus in opening his eye-sight, though he had only partial knowledge about His identity. Amazingly, he had better and clearer eye-sight than his neighbors in comprehending the identity of Jesus. They were spiritually blind to the notable deed done before their eyes, for they did not rejoice his healing, nor sought this miracle Worker, Jesus. In steads, they brought the blind man to the Pharisees in examining him breaking of the Sabbath. The healed man again proven to be courageous and sincere with his conviction about Jesus. Though the Pharisees tried to suppress his conviction by various schemes, he incipient faith in Jesus was not wavered. They first intimidated him to admit that Jesus had sinned in violating their tradition regarding the Sabbath. After that, they sought for entanglement of his testimony, and reviled him as ignorant. Remarkably, he rebutted them with an indisputable argument in proving that Jesus was righteous and a Prophet of God. His premises were: (1) It was a fact that he was healed by Jesus, and (2) God would not hear sinner, but him that was righteous, and (3) such miracle was not been done by man, but only by supernatural agent. Thus, his case was established and settled. Sadly, the Pharisees shut their mind to the Light, and would not open their mind to the indisputable facts. Though Jesus mission was to save the world, but in their rejection of His gift of grace, they were condemned. Their condemnation was inexcusable, who voluntarily rejected the Divine Light. Jesus proved Himself to be true to His promise, Who ministered and comforted the afflicted. Though he was expelled from the synagogue by the Jews, he was received into Gods family. His conversion unto Christ was consummated by faith in His Person, which based upon revelation, and was perfected by his obedience and submission to the Savior.

Doctrinal Summary of John 9

In the first four verses, the question of suffering is discussed. Jesus corrected the wrong concept of many who thought that suffering was caused by sin. Indeed, both righteous and wicked people will suffer in this life. Jesus admitted that there was suffering in the world, however, He did not discuss its cause, but rather, how one should deal with it. He encouraged His disciples be always ready to minister to the afflicted. Though there are physical sufferings in this life, yet most importantly, one has to walk in Gods word in order to prevent the eternal suffering--Hell.

In Jesus healing of the born blind man, we see that obedient faith was again rewarded by God. Though Jesus exercised His mighty power in healing him, yet He reserved a part of responsibility for the recipient. Indeed, every promise of the Bible is conditioned upon ones response to Gods decree. For instance, in the case of salvation, though it is based solely upon Gods grace, yet one must fulfill his part in obeying the Gospel (2 Thess 1:7-9).

We see the born blind had better and clearer eye-sight than the people described in this chapter. First, his neighbors, though they were sure about this miracle, yet they would not rejoice of his healing, nor did they investigate the Healer claim, neither did they search the truth. In steads, they shut their mind from the Light, and brought the man before the religious leaders, in order to accuse him breaking the Sabbath. Secondly, the parents of the healed man, though they were sure about the miracle, and the miracle-Worker, they would not confess Christ. They forfeited their eternal life by fearing men (Mat.10:28). Thirdly, the Pharisees were so blind in refusing to be illuminated by the "Light". In steads, they opposed to the truth, and tried to distort it. They were condemned by their follies. In contrast, the healed man was converted to Christ by receiving the "Light". His faith in Christ was manifested in works of obedience, which based on Gods revelation.

Analytical Outline of John 10

Jesus, the Shepherd of God.

I. (1-6) The allegory of the fold and the Shepherd is portrayed.

A. (1-2) The means of entrance distinguishes a thief from the Shepherd.

1. (1) The thief will use an unlawful way for entrance.

2. (2) The Shepherd enters in by the door.

B. (3-5) The sheep know their Shepherd.

1. (3) He knows His sheep personally.

2. (4) They follow His guidance.

3. (5) They will not follow strangers.

C. (6) The Pharisees fail to understand the parable.

II. (7-18) The true Shepherd and the hirelings are contrasted.

A. (7-10) He is the Door of the fold.

1. (7-8) He is the only entrance into the fold.

2. (9) He provides for them.

3. (10) He gives abundant live to the sheep.

B. (11-18) He is the good Shepherd.

1. (11) He is the Savior of the fold.

2. (12-13) He is the Owner of the fold.

3. (14-15) He is the Friend of the fold.

4. (16) He is the Gatherer of the fold.

5. (17-18) He is the guarantee of the fold.

III. (19-21) The Pharisees are divided.

A. (19) Jesus saying affects them.

B. (20) Some revile Him.

C. (21) Others are open-minded.

V. (22-39) Jesus is challenged by the Jews at the feast of dedication.

A. (22-30) The goats are distinguished from the sheep.

1. (22-23) The circumstance is given.

2. (24) They question His identity.

3. (25-26) They are not belong to Jesus fold.

4. (27-28) The true sheep of Jesus is described.

5. (29-30) The Fathers promise for the sheep is assured in Him.

B. (31-39) Jesus is sanctified for the world.

1. (31-33) The Jews charge Him speaking blasphemy.

2. (34-36) Jesus defends Himself as being sanctified by God.

3. (37-38) His works is certified by God.

4. (39) The Father delivers Him from their hands.

V. (41-43) Jesus reaps souls in Johns country.

A. (41-42) Johns testimony is true regarding Jesus.

B. (43) Many become His disciples.

Exegetical Commentary of John 10

In this chapter, the evangelist recorded the discourse of the Good Shepherd of Jesus. He spoke this parable in demonstrating that He was the God appointed Shepherd for Israel. In contrast, He condemned the religious leaders as thieves and hirelings. First, He spoke of His entrance and relationship to His sheep (Verses 1-6). Jesus was the lawful Shepherd for Israel, because He came to them according to Gods will and appointment. Besides, He did Gods work among them, in that He proved Himself to be the spiritual Leader for Gods people. In guiding their spiritual journey, He revealed Gods teaching unto them. So that, they might finish their sojourning upon this earth unto Heaven by hearing and obeying His will. Whereas, the false shepherds would come to the sheep in unlawful ways. They were those who taught mens traditions or philosophy, and did things contrary to Gods will. Their motive was apparent for selfish ambition, or gains. They were identified as thieves and robbers by Jesus. The sheep of God would not hear their teachings, for they would only hear Gods teaching. The relationship of Jesus to His people is intimate. He personally knows each individual concerning his character or spiritual needs, and will give them guidance through His word.

He emphasized that He was the only entrance into the fold, because He is "the way, the truth, and the life" (John 14:6). Salvation is given only through His name (Acts 4:12), for He is the Mediator between God and men (1 Tim.2:4-6), and the propitiation of mens sins (1 John 2:2). One must therefore believe on Him and the Gospel, then by obedience to Gods oracle, he is added to His fold, the church (Acts 2:37-38, 41-47). He as the Great Shepherd of His sheep would give spiritual provision to them, and promised to give them an abundant life (John 10:10).

Then, Jesus described beautifully regarding His works for His fold. (1) He was the Savior of the fold, for He would give His life for His sheep. This sacrificial act was accomplished on the cross of Calvary, where He died for the sins of the world (2 Cor.5:21). Thereby, the door of salvation might be opened for the penitent believers. (2) He was the Owner of the sheep (John 10:12-13), therefore, He concerned for His sheep. In contrast to the hirelings, they would not care for the sheep, nor protect them, but shepherded them out of his selfish motives. Amazingly, Jesus had a blood-relationship with His sheep, Who purchased them with the price of His own blood (Acts 20:28). (3) He was the Friend of His sheep (John 10:14-15), Who knew them intimately and personally. Jesus love for His friends surpasses the noblest love found in the world (John 15:12-13; Rom.5:7-10). (4) He was the Gatherer of His fold (John 10:16). He spoke in reference of His grace upon the Gentiles. In Him, all kindred of people are united as one nation governed by God (Eph.2:11ff). (5) He was the assurance of the fold (John 10:17-18), because He had all authority in Heaven and on earth. Even death had no power over Him, death did not claim His life, but He gave His life for the world. Also, He was the reconciliation for us toward God. Therefore, believers are assured by His promise and authority, that God will receive and bless them (John 14:6). By His great discourse and mighty works, the religious leaders were divided on their opinions about Jesus. Some simply ignored the truth in unbelief, and slandered Him and His influence (John 10:20). Others who had an open-mind were bothered by His notable deeds, not knowing what to do with Him. They would neither believe Him, nor ignore His works.

It was three months later, on the feast day of Dedication, which was celebrated for the commemoration of the cleansing of the temple from Pagan invasion, the religious leaders again came to Him and questioned Him. They had no patience toward Him, and plainly asked Him whether He was the Christ. Of course, they would not receive His claim whether He said yes or no, for they did not expect a moral teacher, but a military leader. Jesus again referred them to His mighty works, which the Father testified of His claim (Acts2:23). They certainly were not Jesus sheep, who did not listen nor believe in His voice. When Jesus revealed to them concerning His unity with the Father, they were mad at Jesus, and tried to stone Him. Jesus left them, probably by a miraculous way. Then, Jesus went to Jordan, where John had previously ministered to some penitent people. There, many believed Him and testified the witness of John was true about the Messiah.

Doctrinal Summary of John 10

In this chapter, one cannot but see three major doctrines taught by Christ. These doctrines are, the characteristics of Jesus sheep, and the characteristics of the false shepherds, and Jesus care as the Good Shepherd for His people. Concerning Jesus sheep, their identities are: (1) They hear Jesus word (John 10:27), but would not hear the voice of strangers. We must listen to His word alone, and not to mens traditions, nor opinions, neither philosophy. (2) They follow Jesus (John 10:27). It refers to their obedience unto Jesus. One must obey Him in order to be saved (Heb.5:9). (3) They know their Shepherd personally (john 10:3). Every believer of Jesus must know his Master before he would listen and obey Him (Mat.11:28-30). In following Jesus, they also reap manifold blessings and rewards. (1) They will obtain freedom from sin and spiritual death through obeying Christ (John 10:9). True freedom is by knowing and doing His word (John 8:30-31). (2) They will receive protection and provision through Him, for He promised to provide their spiritual needs. (3) They will obtain an abundant life on this earth, and eternal life at the end, since Jesus is their Savior.

Concerning the false teachers, they are depicted as thieves, robbers, and hirelings by the Savior. They will enter in an unlawful ways, teaching things contrary to Gods will. Their motives are selfish, such as, material gains, ambition, prestige, or power. They would not concern for their followers, for they consider themselves to be hirelings. In contrast, Jesus was the Owner of the fold (John 10:12-13), Who purchased Gods people with His own blood. Therefore, He loved them dearly and self-sacrificially. Jesus was also the Friend of the fold (John 10:14-15), the Savior of the fold (John 10:11), the Assurance of the fold (John 10:17-18), the Leader of the fold (John 10:4), the Liberator of the fold (John 10:9), the Provider of the fold (John 10:9), the Protector of the fold (John 10:11), the Only entrance to the fold (John 10:7), and the Mediator of the fold (John 10:18).

Analytical Outline of John 11

Jesus is the Resurrection and the Life.

I. (1-16) Jesus departs from Perea for Lazarus.

A. (1-6) The bad news from Bethany is sent.

1. (1-3) The sorrowful message is sent.

2. (4-6) The loving Savior delays His departure.

B. (7-16) The danger in Judea is considered.

1. (7-8) The disciples opposition to Jesus departure is suggested.

2. (9-10) Jesus confidence is expressed.

3. (11-15) The purpose of His delaying is given.

a. (11-14) Jesus regards death as sleeping.

b. (15) He intends to strengthen His disciples faith.

4. (16) The courageous expression of the disciple is recorded.

II. (17-37) Jesus arrival at Bethany is related.

A. (17-27) Jesus interview with Martha is recorded.

1. (17-19) The scene of mourning is described.

2. (20-21) The regretful lamentation is expressed.

3. (22-24) The confident persuasion is expressed.

4. (25-27) The sublime confession is expressed.

a. (25-26) The revelation of life is uttered.

b. (27) The confession of faith is uttered.

B. (28-37) Jesus interview with Mary is related.

1. (28) The summon of Jesus is sent.

2. (29-31) The response is seen.

3. (32) The complaint is made.

4. (33-36) The sympathy is seen.

5. (37) The expectation is reached.

III. (38-46) The scene at the tomb is related.

A. (38-40) The surprising command is given.

B. (41-42) The prayer of Faith is uttered.

C. (43-44) The life-quickening word is uttered.

D. (45-46) The effects are different.

1. (45) Some believe by seeing the sign.

2. (46) Other harden their hearts in unbelief.

IV. (47-54) The determination is made to kill Jesus.

A. (47) A counsel is held.

B. (48) A political concern is expressed.

C. (49-50) A selfish and unrighteous word is uttered.

D. (51-52) God is sovereign over even rebellious men.

E. (53) A wicked plot is determined.

F. (54) Jesus waits for the Fathers timing.

V. (55-57) The tenor of Jerusalem is depicted.

A. (55) The scene is described.

B. (56) The confusion is described.

C. (57) The apprehension is authorized.

Exegetical Commentary of John 11

In this chapter, the evangelist recorded the sign of Jesus in raising Lazarus. This miraculous work proves He is the "Resurrection and Life" (John 11:25-26). The sign starts with the scene in Perea, where Jesus withdrew Himself from the Pharisees, and waited for the "final hour" to sacrifice Himself for the sins of the world. A bad news of Lazarus was sent to Jesus by two disciples from Bethany. Amazingly, though He loved Lazarus and his sisters, Mary and Martha dearly, yet He delayed His journey for two more days (John 11:1-6). When He made His journey to Bethany, which was located in Judea, His disciples warned Him regarding the dangers of going there, for the Jews sought to kill Him. He encouraged them that they should not be fear of men, but that if they walked in Gods will, He would protect them. "Fear them not that can kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul, but rather fear Him that is able to destroy both body and soul in Hell" (Mat.10:28). One should therefore fear if he walks contrary to Gods will, for He will bring every secret thing into judgement (Rom.2:16). Jesus then revealed unto His disciple the purpose of His delay. It was because He intended to use this event to increase their faith in Him, for He would raise Lazarus from the dead. He described his death as falling a sleep, because He had all authority to quicken His mortal body. The death of the saints is described as fallen a sleep in Jesus, for they will rest from the labor of this world, and is received into Gods paradise, waiting for the great day of rewarding. On the other hand, the death of the wicked is terrible, for they will suffer in torments until the judgement day, and then they will be punished in Hell for eternity (Luke 16:19-31; 2 Thess.1:6-9).

When Jesus and His apostles arrived at Bethany, about two miles from Jerusalem, Lazarus had lain in tomb for two days (John 11:17). Many friends of the family came to the house of Lazarus to console the sisters. Martha then went to meet Jesus on the way, and expressed her regret to her Master. She firmly believed that her brother would not have been dead if Jesus arrived earlier. Remarkably, she still had faith that Jesus could revive her brother even at this point (John 11:22). Jesus promised that her brother would rise up again, however, He did not plainly reveal unto her that He would revive him later. Yet He graciously revealed unto her a spiritual truth, that the resurrection and future life of men were dependant upon Him (John 11"25-26). Martha, knowing Him and His works in the past, professed her faith in Him by confession Jesus to be the Christ and the Son of God. Though men will suffer physical death before His second coming, yet those who believe in Him shall live eternally. Men has both physical and spiritual natures. The physical part is subject to mortality and corruption, but the spiritual part shall live eternally, whether it be in Heaven or in Hell. This life is liken unto probation, every man can prepare his own way to Heaven or to Hell. Nevertheless, there is only one way to Heaven and eternal life, that is, through believing and obeying the Son of God (Heb.5:9). Mary also came to Jesus and expressed her regret of Jesus delay. He did not rebuke the sorrowful disciple, but empathized her sorrow and grief (John 11:33). "Rejoice with them that do rejoice, weep with them that weep" (Rom.12:15). This is the spirit of Christ, Christians ought to follow the Masters example. Then, Jesus went to the tomb, the family and the Jews followed Him. After commanding the people to remove the stone that was lain in front of the tomb, He uttered a prayer to God, in order to demonstrate Gods approval of Him, He then cried with a loud voice, and called Lazarus to come forth (John 11:41-43). With the word of the Son of God, Lazarus was revived from the death. In the beginning, the world came into existence by the word of God, and was upheld by it (Gen.1; Heb.1:3). It has the same power today to quicken sinners from spiritual death and to direct their walk unto Heaven (John 6:63; 14:6). By Jesus raising Lazarus from the dead, some Jews believed on Jesus, but many others who had seen this wonderful deed hardened their hearts in unbelief, and reported the incident to the religious leaders. Thereby, a counsel was convened by the Sanhedrin, the Jewish judicial authority, to decide what they would do with Jesus (John 11:47). Caiaphas the high priest, elected by the corrupt religious hierarchy, maliciously suggested that they must kill Jesus in order to save the nation from political tumult. The whole counsel then resolved to kill Him. It was near the feast of the Passover, the people of Jerusalem were expecting to see Jesus, and wondering whether He would appear at the Feast day, because the Jewish leaders gave order to the people to apprehend Jesus.

Doctrinal Summary of John 11

From Jesus delaying His journey to heal Lazarus, we see that sometimes God will delay His answer for Christians prayer, so that greater glory will be resulted from the delay. Christian must trust in God in all circumstance, for God is All-wise and Almighty, and He cares for them (Mat.6:33). The doctrine of walking in the light is spoken by Jesus in verses 9-10. When Christ decided to go to Judea, He was warned by His disciples regarding the dangers of it. Then, He instructed them that one must "walk in the day". It means to walk in Gods will, and to do His work. There is a promise given to the doers of His word, that they will not stumble (James 1:22-25). A warning is also given here, that those who do not walk in His counsel will stumble. It is indeed inevitable, for men cannot direct their own steps to Heaven (Jere.10:23). There is no mutual ground on spiritual standing, one is either in the Kingdom of Christ or the kingdom of Satan.

In verses 23-26, the doctrine of resurrection is taught. The dead will rise at the last day, and then all will be judged by Christ. The faithful and obedient will receive eternal life, but the disobedient will be punished forever (2 Thess.1:7-9). Ones eternal destiny is depended on his relationship with the Son of God, for He said, "I Am the resurrection and the life". This blessed life is conditioned on ones faith in His claim and Person. Though men will suffer physical death until Christs second coming, yet the spiritual nature of men live forever, whether it be in Heaven or in Hell. This life is liken unto probation for man, every one can choose his eternal destiny according to his response to the Gospel (Mark 16:16). The power of Jesus word is seen in the raising of Lazarus. When Jesus called him to come forth from the tomb, he was revived. In the beginning, the Son of God called all the universe into existence, and now upholds all things by His word (Heb.1:3). Also, this word of life is able to quicken sinners from spiritual death (John 6:63).

Analytical Outline of John 12

Jesus is the Suffering Messiah of God.

I. (1-11) The Suffering Servant is anointed.

A. (1-2) Gratitude to Jesus is shown.

B. (3) Honor to Him is expressed.

C. (4-8) Her action is defended.

1. (4-6) A hypocritical criticism is exposed.

2. (7-8) She is honored by the Master.

D. (9-11) Jesus is attended by the public.

1. (9) A speculation about Jesus is described.

2. (10-11) An indignation against Jesus is described.

II. (12-19) The triumphant entry of the Suffering Servant is described.

A. (12-13) Jesus is held as a national Deliverer by the public.

B. (14-16) Jesus is the King of peace and spiritual Leader of Gods people.

C. (17-18) Jesus is believed as the Messiah by raising Lazarus.

D. (19) The Pharisees were envious of Jesus honor.

III. (20-26) The harvest of Suffering is revealed.

A. (20-22) The Greeks seek Jesus.

B. (23-25) The mystery of self-sacrificial service is revealed.

C. (26) The reward of self-denial and faithful service is revealed.

IV. (27-33) The Suffering Servants death is significant.

A. (27-28) The Divine communion is described.

B. (29-32) The address to the spectators is recorded.

1. (29-30) The purpose of the voice is explained.

2. (31) The purpose of His death is explained.

3. (32) The purpose of His exaltation is explained.

C. (33) The commend of the evangelist is recorded.

V. (34-43) The Suffering Messiah is rejected by the worldly minded.

A. (34-36) The expectation of the people is described.

1. (34) The carnal mind misunderstand the Scriptures.

2. (35-36) The admonition to believe in the Divine Light is given.

B. (37-41) The prophecy testifies the unbelief attitude.

1. (37-38) They do not believe in Jesus.

2. (39-41) They do not repent.

3. (42-43) They do not confess Him.

VI. (44-50) The mission of the Suffering Servant is revealed.

A. (44-46) He comes to give Light to the world.

1. (44-45) The honor of receiving Him is described.

2. (46) The promise of receiving Him is described.

B. (47-48) He comes to expose darkness.

1. (47) His mission is to save the world.

2. (48) The word will judge those who reject this offer.

C. (49-50) He comes to reveal the Fathers will.

1. (49) He does not speak of Himself.

2. (50) He reveals the Fathers will.

Exegetical Commentary of John 12

In this chapter, the evangelist portrayed Jesus as the Suffering Servant of God. The vast majority of the Jews did not understand Him, but expected an earthly and national Deliverer. The first section is concerning the anointing of the Suffering King (John 12:1-11). It was six days before Jesus went to the cross on the Passover. The scene was a feast of gratitude at Bethany, which the family of Lazarus held to honor Jesus Christ, for He had just raised Lazarus from the dead (John 11:43-44). In the midst of the supper, Mary approached Jesus, and anointed His feet with a very costly ointment. Such act of honor and devotion was criticized by a materialistic minded man, Judas. He contended that it was a waste to anoint Jesus, but should be used to relieve the poor. The evangelist, however, revealed his selfish motive. Judas was not concerned about the poor, but that he could get money out of the pocket. It is a very sad story regarding Judas, who sold his eternal destiny for money. He was so close to the truth, and received so great amount of privilege on earth, but he was lost at last. Regarding the unjust and harsh accusation against His loyal disciple, the Savior defended her, and praised her for her foresight concerning His suffering. He revealed that this was a embalming of His body before His burial, and commanded the apostles that this act of devotion must be commemorated and be preached with the Gospel (Mat.26:13).

The next day, Jesus took His journey unto Jerusalem for the Feast of the Passover. When the people of Jerusalem learned about His entry, they honored Him as an earthly Monarch and their national Deliverer by spreading branches of palm tree on Jesus way. The Jews rendered the same honor to Judas Maccabeus when he defeated their national enemy and rededicated the temple altar. Therefore, they held Jesus as their national liberator, and hoped that He would overturn the Roman rule. They did not comprehend the significance behind His miraculous works. He was the Deliverer Who would save them from their sins and from the assault of Satan. Even the apostles failed to understand His spiritual mission, but after He was resurrected from the dead, they then realized that He came as the King of peace, sitting upon a colt, fulfilling the prophecy of Zechariah (Zech.9:9). The religious leaders were envious of His honor, seeing the people were following Him. What a dramatic moment it was! Though so many people gave homage of Him, yet they did not understand the Person and the claim of their Hero. Just a few days later, the same crowd which confessed Him as the "King of Israel" demanded Him to be crucified as a criminal! Simply, Jesus, the Suffering Servant, did not fit their expectation as an political Deliverer.

In the midst of this emotional moment, some Greeks desired to see Jesus. In responding to their request, He revealed a profound truth to them and to His disciple. It was about the mystery and reward of suffering. He spoke of His death as glorification, because by this act His Divine glory was manifested to the world, and many would obtain the benefit of His death. He was able to endure the cross, for it was the Fathers will to save the world (John 3:16). It is the same in the case of His disciples, if they serve God whole-heartedly with a self-denial spiritual, God will honor such disciples and reward them eternal life at the end. The Jews, however, did not accept His concept of the suffering Messiah, and reasoned with Jesus from the Scriptures. They contended that the Messiah would reign in glory forever (John 12:34). True, the Messiah would reign forever, but not upon the earth as a military Leader as they expected. He would reign in Heaven, and over the church as their spiritual Leader (Eph.1:22-23). Though Jesus had performed many wonderful deeds, they would not believe His Person, nor His teaching. Sadly, the prophet Isaiah had predicted about their unbelief. This prophecy was fulfilled when they would not listen to His teaching, nor repent of their sins, neither confess Him before men. Therefore, Jesus withdrew Himself from the public, and preserved His last week for the chosen apostles, and prepared them for His sorrowful news regarding His crucifixion. Though His mission was to give Light to the world, in order to save the lost, yet many were judged and condemned when they refused to accept the gift of salvation. Since they by rejecting Christ had rejected the Father.

Doctrinal Summary of John 12

In Judas unlawful desire for money, the word of Paul is proven to be inspired, for "the love of money is the root of all evil" (1 Tim.6:10). Judas sold his eternal destiny for pieces of money. It is indeed a sad story, for he was so close to Jesus, the Savior, and he had been so privileged in associating with the Greatest Teacher, yet his lot for eternity is Hell (2 Thess.1:7-9). Sinful desire is often manifested in action, such as Judas who criticized the act of Marys loving devotion for the Master as "what a waste!"

By reading the Gospel of John, one cannot but see that the spiritual things of God are misunderstood by the carnal minded. Here, the Jews honored Jesus as an earthly Monarch and a political Deliverer. They missed Gods most precious gift for them, that is, the eternal life in Jesus Christ. A few days later, they who confessed Him to be the "King of Israel" was the same group of people that demanded Him to be crucified as a criminal.

Jesus explained the worth of His death in this chapter. He regarded His death was the way of glorification, because His Divine glory was unveiled in it, and He was crowned to be the King of kings and the Lord of lords by submitting to Gods will (Philp.2:7-11). The benefit of His death is tremendous, not only He would destroy Satans power (John 12:31), He also would draw many people unto Him (John 12:32). On the day of Pentecost, about three thousand people obeyed the Gospel, and were added to the church (Acts 2:36-47). By shedding His blood, He purchased Gods people with His own blood and established the church (Acts 20:28; 1 Pet.1:18-19). Though His mission was to save the world, and to give Light to the world, yet many were judged and condemned by rejecting this gift of grace. Since they that reject Christ have rejected God Who testified His Son and gave Him the word of life. The word of Jesus will be the standard of judgement in the last day.

Analytical Outline of John 13

The love of Christ is illustrated.

I. (1-17) The example of greatness is illustrated.

A. (1-3) A marvelous love is described.

1. (1) He loves them unto the end.

2. (2) He loves them even before His suffering.

3. (3) He loves them before His joyous exaltation.

B. (4-11) A marvelous deed is done.

1. (4-5) An amazing condescension is seen.

2. (6-11) The Messiah is Gods Suffering Servant for the world.

a. (6-8) His serving role is not understood by many.

b. (9-11) His life will redeem the sin of many.

C. (12-17) A marvelous obligation is commanded.

1. (12-14) They are commanded to exercise humility one to another.

2. (15-16) They should follow Christs example.

3. (17) They should do it in love.

II. (18-30) The traitor is identified.

A. (18-21) A solemn announcement is declared.

1. (18-19) The purpose of foretelling is given.

2. (20) The warning is given.

3. (21) The betrayal is foreseen.

B. (22-25) An anxious question is asked.

1. (22) They reason among themselves.

2. (23-25) The question is asked.

C. (26-30) An explicit answer is given.

1. (26) The traitor is identified.

2. (27) An opportunity for sin is sought.

3. (28-30) An opportunity for betrayal is taken.

III. (31-38) His departure is announced.

A. (31-32) The glorious moment is come.

B. (33) A separation is foretold.

C. (34-35) A new commandment is given.

1. (34) The degree of love is defined.

2. (35) Love is the mark of discipleship.

D. (36-38) A warning is given.

1. (36) Peters curiosity is seen.

2. (37) Peters confidence is seen.

3. (38) Peters denial is foreseen.

Exegetical Commentary of John 13

In this chapter, the evangelist began to relate the scene of the Passover meal. There are three major events in this chapter. They are: (1) Jesus washed the apostles feet, (2) The traitor was identified, and (3) Jesus revealed His departure. Knowing three other evangelists accounts, John deliberately skipped some events, e.g. the cleansing of the temple, the confrontation with the leaders, the cursing of the fig tree, and laid the emphasis on Jesus last discourse with the apostles from Ch.13 to 17. Now, it was the last meal which He communed with His apostles. According to the other evangelists, the New Covenant was instituted by Jesus on this setting (Mat.26:28), that He would shed His blood for the sins of many. John, however, recorded a lesson of humility, which Jesus illustrated to them. The apostles had been arguing who was the greatest among them, not only that, they had also misunderstood the role of Jesus Messiahship. Here, Jesus showed them that the greatness in His Kingdom was service. The greatness One was the Servant of all, Who gave His life a ransom for many. Jesus service for mankind was based on His love for them. It could be illustrated on the Passover meal, though He fully conscious that He was the Master and Lord over them, He took the role of servant in washing their feet. It was an amazing self-condescension, but Jesus had a purpose behind it, that is, to teach them a lesson on humility. No doubt, the apostles strife and bitterness against one another was subsided because of the marvelous humility of their King. Peter at first refused his Masters service, not knowing the significance of it. Jesus instructed him that it was imperative and necessary. Afterward, He gave them its meaning, that is, they were commanded to submit one to another, since it was the rule of His Kingdom. Also, they should follow their Masters example, and perform it in love as He had loved them.

Then, He revealed to them that one of them would betray Him. In foretelling this incident, Jesus intended to strengthen the apostles faith in Him, showing to them that He had the foreknowledge of it. He was not passive in the betrayal as a victim, but allowed it to happen. So that, He might accomplish Gods plan of redemption. Concerning this disloyal betrayal, Jesus pointed to an O.T. prophecy, which predicted the Messiah would be betrayed by His disloyal friend (Ps.41:9). As soon as the apostles heard it, they were troubled by it, and reasoned among themselves that who was the traitor. Then, Peter, the straight forward one, asked John to inquire of the Master, for John was the beloved disciple of Jesus. Surprisingly, Jesus answered this question explicitly, and told them that He would identify him by giving him a dipped bread. This He did to Judas, but the apostles did not perceive it at this moment. They thought that Jesus sent him to perform an act of benevolence to relieve the poor. Then, He urged him to do the thing that he desired quickly. It is by no means that Jesus forced him to sin, nor did Satan, but Judas himself chose to do it, who had waited an opportunity for a season. He had previously determine to give Jesus into the hand of the religious leaders, and agreed with them to betray Him for thirty pieces of silver (Mat.26:14-16). The formula of sin is, "when lust hath conceived, it bringeth sin: and sin, when it is finished, bringeth forth death" (James 1:15). Judas case is applied to this formula.

After the departure of Judas, Jesus revealed His immediate departure to the apostles. It was a glorious moment for Him. The reasons are: (1) He would reveal to mankind His sacrificial love, in that He died for their sin; and (2) He would triumph over the power of death and of Satan (Heb.2:14-15); and (3) He would be glorified by finishing the Fathers will and by becoming the Savior and Lord of His people. God Himself would be glorified by the Sons sacrifice, because He proved His Divine love to the universe, and fulfilled His promise in the redemption of mankind.

Doctrinal Summary of John 13

In the first half of the chapter, the lesson of humility is illustrated (1-17). The Lord of glory and the Creator of all creature condescended Himself to take the role of servant. This was a marvelous deed, however, there was a purpose behind it. First, He intended to correct their view about the greatness in the Kingdom. In all earthly kingdoms, the greater is served by the lesser, but in Christs Kingdom, it is different, the greatest should be the servant of all. The disciples of Jesus are commanded to submit one to another in exercising their humility. Second, this service for another must be sprung from love. It was the case for the Master, Who loved His disciples even in the hour of His sorrow, or in His inner joy of future exaltation. By His love for mankind, He came to the world to pay the redemption price for them (1 Tim.2:4-6). He gave a new commandment to His apostles, that they should love one another with the degree of His love (John 13:34-35).

In Judas betrayal of Jesus, Gods sovereignty is seen. However, God did not force him to commit sin, nor did Satan. It was Judas himself who made his own choice to betray Jesus, because Jesus did not fit his concept of a political leader. Judas was disappointed of the Suffering Messiah. He therefore decided to give Him into the hand of the Jewish leaders, and made an agreement for thirty pieces of silver. Finally, When Jesus told him to do quickly the thing that he desired, he took the opportunity to depart from the supper, and went to inform the religious leaders. His wicked act did not surprise God Who foreknew all things. Indeed, this act of betraying the Messiah was predicted by God through His prophet. God allowed Judas to play the role of betraying the Savior to be crucified, so that Jesus might die for the sins of the world. God, however, did not predestinate Judas to be lost, for he could have repented of his sin. He chose his own eternal destiny by rejecting the truth Light, Jesus Christ. Whether a man obeys or disobeys God, He is still sovereign over all.

Analytical Outline of John 14

The consolations of Christ to the sorrowful apostles.

I. (1-3) Reunion in the Fathers house is foretold.

A. (1) They ought to trust in Christ.

B. (2) A place is prepared for them.

C. (3) He will receive them into the mansion.

II. (4-11) He is the way to the Father.

A. (4-6) Jesus is the way to the Father.

B. (7-9) Jesus is the manifestation of the Father.

C. (10-11) Jesus and the Father are One.

III. (12-14) They will do greater works later.

A. (12) His believer shall do greater works.

B. (13-14) Jesus will answer their request.

IV. (15-17) He will sent another Comforter.

A. (15) The condition is given.

B. (16) The Father will send the Comforter.

C. (17) He is identified as the Spirit of truth.

V. (18-24) Christ will return to them.

A. (18-21) A spiritual communion is promised.

B. (22-24) An explanation is given for this spiritual communion.

VI. (25-26) The Holy Spirit will enlighten them.

A. (25) The present word is given by Christ.

B. (26) The Holy Spirit will enlighten them, and bring them to remembrance.

VII. (27-31) They should not be dismayed of Christs departure.

A. (27) There is peace.

B. (28) They should rejoice.

C. (29) Christ is in charge.

D. (30-31) Christs obedience to the Father is proven in His departure.

Exegetical Commentary of John 14

After revealing His imminent departure to the apostles, Jesus in this chapter began to speak words of encouragement to comfort His apostles who were extremely sorrowful in learning their Masters news. The first consolation He gave them was there would be an reunion at the Fathers house. He was the Messenger of God to prepare for their eternal destiny. Without His atoning death, no one would be able to go Heaven, for "all hath sinned and come short of the glory of God" (Rom.3:23). He must depart from this earth by the way of the cross, in order to redeem Gods children. "Without shedding of blood is no remission" (Heb.9:22). There is an reunion promised for Gods people in Heaven.

The second consolation is that Jesus is the way to the Father. He revealed to His apostles that He was the Mediator between God and men. "No man can come to the Father but by me" (John 14:6), this was the word of Jesus. It is narrow and exclusive, but true. Only He Himself has two natures, both Divine and human. He therefore is the perfect Mediator to intercede on mans behalf unto God. He can sympathize mens weakness, and help them in time of needs, and make propitiation for their sins (Heb.4:15-16). He was also the manifestation of the Father. In Him is God perfectly reveal (John 1:18), for He was in perfect communion with God from eternity (John 1:1-2), and He had all the moral attributes of God (John 14:9). Also, He, by having the experience of men, was able to reveal God to men perfectly (Heb.1:1-2). More importantly, He and the Father are one, they have the same attributes and same mind to accomplish the same goal.

The third consolation is that Jesus would pray to the Father for sending of another Comforter. By implication, He Himself was a Comforter, Who guided them in spiritual things, and encouraged them in time of weakness, and edified them both in maturity and spirituality. The role of the Holy Spirit was not only to serve as their Comforter, but also to abide with them. His ministry was to enlighten them regarding Christs word, and to bring them into remembrance about His teaching. This promise was fulfilled in the day of Pentecost, when the power of the Holy Spirit came upon them. Then, the apostles were inspired and spoke the oracle of God. The fourth consolation to them is that they would do a greater work when Christ depart from the earth. It was not only referred to their miraculous deeds which they would perform in Christs name, but also their ministry would be superior than the Old Testaments and Johns. The New Covenant was not inaugurated until Christ shed His blood on the cross, and ascended into Heaven (Heb.9:15-17). Therefore, the apostles did greater works in preaching the Final will of God through Jesus Christ (Heb.1:1-2).

The fifth consolation Christ gave them is that Christ would soon unite with them after His departure. This reunion, however, is not a physical one, but a spiritual one. The return of Christ would enable them to have better knowledge of the Father, and to have eternal life in Him. Nevertheless, there was a condition for this spiritual fellowship, that is, they had to keep His commandment. It was natural for His disciples to keep His word if they really loved Him. It was against nature for the wicked to keep His word. Therefore, the test for ones love for God is tried by his keeping of His word. Divine communion is the consequence for one in loving Christ.

The sixth consolation is that they would receive an Heavenly peace from Christ. True peace is only originated from God. It is sprung from a right relationship with God through Christs reconciliatory work (Rom.5:1-2). In conclusion, Jesus said they should rather rejoice of His departure, because He was about to destroy the power of Satan, and to accomplish the scheme of redemption by going to the cross. Moreover, this suffering was the Fathers will, and His love for mankind was proven and demonstrated.

Doctrinal Summary of John 14

The evangelist recorded many truths about the person of Jesus. (1) He is the object of faith (John 14:1). This fact is demonstrated in the Gospel Plan of Salvation. One must believe Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and confess His name, then be baptized into Him. (2) He prepared the home of Heaven for the believers (John 14:2-3), and will receive them into this Heavenly home. In His death, He opened the door of salvation for men. Without His shedding of blood, no one could be saved, for "all hath sinned and come short of the glory of God" (Rom.3:23). (3) He is the Mediator between God and men (John 14:6). No one can substitute His place, for only He has two natures, both Divine and human. He therefore is able to intervene between both parties. (4) He is the only way to Heaven (John 14:6), all other ways are excluded. (5) He is the manifestation of God (John 14:9). He was in perfect communion with God from eternity (John 1:1-2), and had all moral attributes of God. By having human experience, He was able to reveal and to communicate the Fathers will to men. Therefore, if a person learns the things written of Christ in the scriptures, he will also learn about the Fathers Person and attributes. (6) He is the Comforter of His people (John 14:16). As their Comforter, He guides His believers in spiritual matters, and helps them to mature their faith, and comfort them in times of sorrow. However, these are accomplished by the ministry of His word (2 Tim.3:16-17). (7) He has spiritual communion with His believers (John 14:23). This is conditioned upon ones keeping of His word. (8) He will give peace to His believers (John 14:27). Peace is the result of His redemptive and reconciliatory works (Rom.5:1-2).

The Person and work of the Holy Spirit is discussed in this chapter. He is a Person and serves as a Comforter for the apostles (John 14:15). He also would enlighten them, and bring them into remembrance of Christs word (John 14:25-26), and abide with them forever.

Analytical Outline of John 15

Discipleship of Christ.

I. (1-8) The disciples are to bear fruits.

A. (1-2) The triangle relation is explained.

A. (1a) Jesus is the vine.

B. (1b) The Father is the Husbandman.

C. (2) The Fathers expectation for the branches is fruitfulness.

B. (3-8) The method of fruit bearing is given.

1. (3) They are sanctified to do the Fathers will by Christs cleansing.

2. (4-5) They must abide in Christ in order to be fruitful.

3. (6) They that do not abide in Christ is destroyed.

4. (7-8) The consequence of abiding in Christ is listed.

a. (7) They shall accomplish Christs will.

b. (8) They shall be Christs true disciples.

II. (9-17) The disciples are to love one another.

A. (9-11) They are to continue in His love.

1. (9) It is imperative.

2. (10) It is by Keeping His commandment.

3. (11) The result of keeping it is joy.

B. (12-15) The commandment is explained.

1. (12) They are to love one another.

2. (13) The degree of love is defined.

3. (14-15) They are His friends if they fulfill His word.

C. (16-17) The commandment is emphasized.

III. (18-27) The enmity of the world against them is foretold.

A. (18-22) The reasons of their hatred are listed.

1. (18) The world hate Christ.

2. (19) The apostles do not belong to the world.

3. (20) The world reject Christ.

4. (21) The world are ignorant of the Father.

B. (22-25) Their sin is inexcusable.

1. (22) The word exposes their sin.

2. (23-24) They have rejected the Father.

3. (25) Their hatred is predicted.

C. (26-27) The word will continue to testify Christ to the world.

1. (26) The Holy Spirit will testify Him to the world.

2. (27) The apostles will testify Him to the world.

Exegetical Commentary of John 15

In this chapter, Jesus revealed to the apostles the duties of discipleship. From verses 1 to 8, He used a metaphor of a vine and its branches to illustrate the necessity for them to bear fruits for Him. He identified Himself as the true Vine, and excluded all other who dared to claim to be the vine. Explicitly, His disciples were the branches, and God was the Husbandman. Jesus revealed to them the Fathers expectation and work, hoping that they would not fall short of Gods glory (Ecc.12:14). The Fathers expectation for the disciples is that they should be fruitful, as an husbandman expects the branches to produce many vine fruits. He would prune the branches in order that they might be more fruitful. In spiritual journey, God would try His children, so that they might be perfected in faith and character (Heb.12:6). If anyone fail his duty in producing fruits, God would cast him off and reserve him for judgement (Rom.9:33). Having explained this relationship, Jesus showed them the method how to bear fruit. It is by abiding in Him, for apart from Christ, they could do nothing. In religious realm, one must do all things in the name of Christ (Col.3:16-17), for Christ is the Head of the church (Eph.1:22-23), Who has all authority upon Heaven and earth (Mat.28:18-20). Though one is sanctified to God through obeying the Gospel, yet if he does not walk in His teaching, he will die inevitably. There are precious promises for those who abide in His word, such as, eternal life, Divine fellowship, Gods answer to prayer. Most significantly, abiding in Christ is the condition of discipleship (John 15:8).

The second part of Christs charge to them was that they ought to love one another. Jesus first commanded them to abide in His love. The way for one to abide in His love is to keep His commandment (John 15:10). Divine love and true love must not be abused, therefore, its exercise must be according to His decree. Jesus expounded to them that He loved them with a Divine love, but not an earthly one. The love which the world exercise is self-seeking, and self-gratifying, and self-glorifying. But Divine love is self-sacrificial, and self-condescending, and selfless, and noble. There is inner joy for those who comprehend and exercise this love, for they will seek the interest of others, and rejoice in the loving deposition. One must be conscious of the Divine love before he could practice a true and pure love toward others. Therefore, Christ appealed them to love one another with this Divine love. He told them that it was imperative to love their brethren. In another setting, He revealed that the fulfilling of the Law and prophets was to do the things to others what they would desire others to do unto them (Mat.7:12). No doubt, love is the fulfilling of the law (Rom.13:8-11), for if one really loves his neighbor, he would not steal his money, nor commit adultery with his wife, neither would kill him. But the love which Christ commanded His apostles here is even nobler and more sublime. They were commanded to love their brethren to the degree of giving their life for the brethren, because it was the degree of His love for them (John 15:13).

After commanding them to love one another, Jesus showed their distinction from the world. Jesus used the word "world" in reference of those who walked in darkness and sin. They who walk in sin would hate Jesus disciples, because they have hated Him. This is the difference between Jesus disciples and the carnal men. Though Jesus gave a prediction that the world would hate them, indeed, it was inevitable for them to be hated by the world. Simply, because they did not belong to the world. They walked in light and righteousness, but not in sin. Thus, they exposed their wicked deeds as Jesus had. The cause of their hatred was that they were ignorant of Gods will, and they had rejected Christ (John 15:20-21). They were inexcusable for their sins, for they had consciously rejected Christs teaching, and rejected the Father by denying His miraculous signs. However, the word of Christ would continue to be preached unto them in testifying Him to be the Savior (John 15:26-27).

Doctrinal Summary of John 15

From verses 1 to 8, Gods purpose for discipleship of Jesus is seen, that is, to bear much fruits for Christ. The Fathers work is compare to an husbandmans work in pruning the good branches to produce more fruits, and to cut away the withered branches that do not produce fruit. The Father will allow the believers to be tried, and help them to produce fruits of patience and of spirituality. The unfaithful and rebellious are reserved unto judgement, and then will be punished forever (Rev.2:10). The method of fruit bearing is by abiding in Jesus word. Jesus relationship with the disciples is compared to a Vine tree to its branches. It is impossible for the branches to produce fruit by themselves, for they are nurtured by the original Vine tree. It is the same with the believers who cannot bear any fruit apart from Jesus. They are to be both hearers and doers of Gods word (James 1:22-25), and to do all things in the name of Christ (Col.3:16-17). God will supply all their spiritual needs if they remain faithful unto Him. They, by abiding in Jesus, become true disciples of Him.

From verses 9 to 17, Christians are commanded to love one another. First, they have to abide in Christs love before they could love one another. This is the formula of love. One could not love unless he understands Gods Divine love for him. It is imperative for one to abide in Jesus love. The way to abide in His love is to keep His commandment. They are commanded to love the brethren as Christ has loved them. This commandment signifies and defines the brotherly love is a self-sacrificial love to the degree of giving ones life for another. Those who love Christ and keep His word are regarded as friends by Him. On the other hand, Christ foretold His apostles that the world would hate them. The world are spoken of as those who live in sin and darkness. They hate Christs disciples because they have hated Christ and His word. Their sin are exposed by His teaching and are inexcusable. However, His word continues to testify His claim and Person.

Analytical Outline of John 16

I. (1-4) The apostles are warned of persecutions.

A. (1) They might not be offended.

B. (2) Their persecutions are described.

C. (3) The reason is given.

D. (4) They are assured.

II. (5-7) Jesus departure is expedience.

A. (5-6) Jesus question and rebuke of the apostle is given.

B. (7) The benefits of His departure are listed.

III. (8-15) The coming and mission of the Holy Spirit are given.

A. (8-11) He will convict and convince the world about the Divine truth.

1. (8) His mission to the world is summarized.

2. (9) He will convict sin.

3. (10) He will convince Christs righteousness.

4. (11) He will show the coming judgement.

B. (12-15) He will assist the apostles.

1. (12-13) He will guide them into all truth.

2. (14-15) He will glorify Christ.

IV. (16-24) Their sorrow shall turn unto joy.

A. (16-19) The difficulty is stated.

1. (16-17) They do not understand.

2. (18-19) They reason among themselves.

B. (20-24) The difficulty is explained.

1. (20) They will mourn at Christs death.

2. (21-22) This sorrow is momentary and will turn into joy.

3. (23-24) Divine presence is promised.

V. (25-33) Jesus assurance to the apostles is given.

A. (25) A complete revelation is promised.

B. (26) A promise of supplication is given.

C. (27) The Fathers love is assured.

D. (28) His Divine mission is summarized.

E. (29-30) The reply and confession of the apostles are recorded.

F. (31-33) The promise of victory is assured.

Exegetical Commentary of John 16

From verses 1 to 4, Jesus continued His warning to the apostles regarding their inevitable persecution in the future. With abundant tenderness, He explained His purpose of foretelling their impending persecution, that is, their faith might not be offended by the rough time. Many people give up following Christ because of persecution or of difficulty. But God will save only the faithful and perseverant disciples (Rev.2:10). Jesus informed them that the Jews would persecuted them with enthusiasm, because they were ignorant of Gods will. This fact was fulfilled when the apostolic church was madly persecuted by the Jews, for "they hath a zeal of God, but not according to knowledge" (Rom.9:3).

From verses 5 to 7, Jesus told them His departure from them was expedience and beneficial for them. However, He reproved them against their lack of faith. Though they had seen Christs many miraculous works, and been with Him for three years, yet they did not have confidence in Him. The problem of them was that they were too self-centered. For this cause, their faith was weak and unstable. It was necessary for Jesus to go to the Father, since it was the Fathers will to accomplish the plan of redemption. His departure also enabled the coming of the Holy Spirit Who would aid the apostles in their ministry.

From verses 8 to 16, the mission of the Holy Spirit was spoken by Christ. First, regarding His ministry to those who live in sin and walk in unrighteous, He will convict their sins, and convince Christs righteousness to them, and show them the judgement to come. All these things are accomplished by the preaching of the Gospel which is inspired of the Holy Spirit. God has given men all things that are needful for their salvation through His all sufficient word (2 Tim.3:16-17; 2 Pet.1:3). Regarding the Holy Spirits ministry unto the apostle, He would guide them into all truth. During Jesus earthly ministry, the apostles had difficulty to understand His teaching, but after the day of Pentecost, when the power of the Holy Spirit descended upon them, they were enlightened and preached the Gospel through His guidance. The apostles doctrine was authoritative, because they were the chosen agents of God in His revelation unto men (Luke 10:16; Acts 2:38-47). Another work of the Holy Spirit is to glorify Christ, which is the aim of the Gospel, since He is the center of the Gospel salvation.

From verses 16 to 24, Christ predicted the sorrow of the apostles would turn into joy. The apostles were now extremely sorrowful, not knowing Gods redemptive plan, but when Jesus was resurrected from the dead, their mourning was turned into joy. At first, the apostles were puzzling about Jesus saying regarding His imminent departure and return. They therefore reasoned one with another about it. Having perceived their perplexity, Jesus revealed to that He would return unto them spiritually after His earthly departure. He assured them that the sorrow was momentary, soon they would understand its significance, and rejoice in Gods wisdom and grace. Moreover, His spiritual presence would enhance their joy, because Christ would help them in their ministry. This is not an earthly joy, which will soon be subsided, but it is an Heavenly one. They would enjoy this Divine fellowship from this life unto eternity.

From verses 25 to 33, Jesus gave another word of encouragement for them, so to equip them for the future work in the Kingdom. First, they would have a complete revelation of the last will of the Father when Christ had ascended back to Heaven. Secondly, He assured them of Gods love for them, so that they should not be fearful of man. This assurance is conditioned on their faithfulness. Thirdly, He assured them His death was the accomplishment of Gods will. It was not an unpredicted failure. Lastly, He had overcome the world, therefore, they should rejoice in Him.

Doctrinal Summary of John 16

Zeal without knowledge is vain and useless. In verses 2-3, Jesus predicted that the Jews would persecuted them with madness. His word was fulfilled when the Jews persecuted the apostolic church. Their conscience was clean in persecuting Christians, thinking that they were executing the will of God against some strange departure from Judaism.

The mission and works of the Holy Spirit are described in verses 8 to 16. In His works among the world, those who live in sin and darkness, He will work in their hearts through the preaching of the Gospel, which is the product of His inspiration. He will reprove their sin by showing them the perfect standard of God, and will convince them about Jesus righteousness, and will show them there will be a judgement to come for the unbelievers and disobedient. This is Gods economy in saving the lost. First, one would not accept the gift of salvation unless he is conscious of his sin and standing before God. Christ is the answer to them for their sin, but if they reject the Gospel, there will be a message of judgement to them. Concerning His work among the apostles, He guided them in revealing Christs word to the world. By His Divine guidance, the New Testament is guarded against error and discrepancy, but is perfect and complete. The Holy Spirit did not speak His own will, but the will of God. Another aspect of His work is to glorify Christ. This is done by preaching of the Gospel, since Jesus is the center of the Gospel.

In Christs assurance to the apostles, some spiritual truths are recorded. (1) The faithful are promised with a joy which will not be affected by the sorrow of this life. (2) They will have a complete revelation by reading the Bible, because the apostles had recorded the Heavenly will in it. (3) The way to be loved by the Father is to believe in the mission, works, and Person of Jesus. (4) Disciples should not be fearful of any difficulty, for Christ has overcome the world.

Analytical Outline of John 17

The High Priestly prayer of Jesus Christ.

I. (1-5) He prays for the consummation of Gods appointed mission.

A. (1) Mens salvation depends on Gods glorification of Jesus death.

B. (2) Mens salvation depends on Christs Person.

C. (3) Mens salvation depends on the knowledge of Christs mission.

D. (4) Mens salvation depends on His accomplishment.

E. (5) Mens salvation depends on His exaltation.

II. (6-19) He prays for the apostles.

A. (6-8) He describes their character and position.

1. (6) They have kept Gods word.

2. (7) They have known Christs is the Son of God.

3. (8) They believe Christs mission has been commission of God.

B. (9-11) He prays for the Divine union with the apostles.

1. (9) They are Gods object of love.

2. (10) Christ is glorified in their faith and profession.

3. (11) Christ prays for their oneness in the Spiritual union.

C. (12-15) He prays for their deliverance from evil.

1. (12) He has kept the twelve but one departs by his own will.

2. (13) He has shown them His joy in midst of suffering.

3. (14) He identifies the hatred of the world toward them.

4. (15) He prays for Gods protection of them from the evil one.

D. (16-19) He prays for their sanctification in their mission.

1. (16) They are not belong to the world.

2. (17) Their sanctification is through Gods word.

3. (18) They are commissioned by Christs authority into the world.

4. (19) Their sanctification dependant on Christs accomplishment.

III. (20-26) He prays for all believers.

A. (20-23) He prays for the union of believers in the Divine fellowship.

1. (20-21) Their unity is the conviction of the world.

2. (22-23) Their perfection in this Divine fellowship gives knowledge to the

World concerning the Divine truth.

B. (24-26) Their union is dependant on Christs revelation of the Father.

1. (24) He prays for their knowledge of Gods name.

2. (25) He alone knows the Fathers will.

3. (26) He alone is the Revealer of Gods will.

Exegetical Commentary of John 17

In this chapter, the evangelist recorded the prayer of Jesus before He went to the cross. In this prayer, He revealed His role as the Great High-Priest between God and men, and Gods plan for mens salvation in His mission. From verses 1 to 5, He prayed to God concerning the completion of His appointed Mission, which would open the door of salvation for men. (1) Mens salvation are dependant on Gods glorification of Christs death or humiliation. If God did not reveal His love in Christs death, and did not raise Him from the death, there would be no hope for mens salvation. In Christs death, God was glorified in providing the perfect "Sin-offering" for men, and His love was proven to be true (John 3:16), and His promises to His servants were fulfilled. (2) Eternal life is found in the Person of Jesus Christ, because God has given Him all authority on Heaven and on earth. Therefore, He has the right to give life to whomsoever He wills (John 1:12-13). (3) Mens salvation is dependant on a right knowledge of the Sons mission. This serves as a requisite for ones acceptance of God (John 17:3). (4) Christs work and mission were purposefully designed for mens salvation, for He had revealed the will of God unto men, and interpreted the Father to them by His Person and life (John 1:17-18; 14:9). Thereby, men might obtain life by abiding in His revealed word (John 6:63). (5) Mens salvation also dependant on Gods exaltation of Christ. His exaltation and ascension perfect the communion between God and men. He is now ministers for men as the Great-High Priest in Heaven forever more. In conclusion, He though prayed unto His Father for Himself, indeed, He prayed for the completion of His appointed commission of God, so that the scheme of redemption might be accomplished in His ministry, death, resurrection, and exaltation.

The next section, from verses 6 to 19, Jesus prayed for the chosen apostles. They also served a part in mens salvation as God had decreed, for God used them to communicate His New Covenant unto men. The apostles were first appointed of Jesus, and were trained for their mission by Jesus for three years, then, they were endowed with the power of the Holy Spirit. After the day of Pentecost, they began to serve as embassador for Christ in the world (John 20:22-23). Now, Christ addressed a prayer to God for their behalf, in order that they might fulfill their commission through Gods aids. His prayer for them can be divided into four parts. (1) Christ gave the ground of His prayer, that the apostles had received His Divine revelation (John 17:6-8). They had believed Jesus was the Son of God, and known that His mission was ordained by God. (2) He then prayed for their union with the Divine fellowship (John 17:9-11). Christ, though had been with them for three years, now was going to depart from the world. It was therefore essential and necessary for them to have this spiritual communion so that they might carry on the mission of preaching the Gospel. This was accomplished by the descending of the Holy Spirit, and their submission to Gods will. (3) He also prayed for their deliverance from evil. This spiritual deliverance was referring to endurance in the faith. Since, Judas departed from the Faith by his own choice. Trials, sufferings, and temptations are inevitable in this life, but by ones knowledge in Gods word, and ones understanding of the Heavenly joy, he is able to overcome those tough time, and remains faithful to the end. It was important for the apostles to remain faithful to the end, Christ therefore prayed for their deliverance from evil. (4) Lastly, Christ prayed for their sanctification (John 17:16-19), which means to set an object apart for Gods service. The apostles were sanctified by Christ to preach His New Testament Law to the world. Their sanctification was based on Christs death and works, and the instrument of it was by Gods word. The third part of Christs prayer was for all believers, which is found in verses 20-26. They are identified as those who would believe in the word of the apostles. Christ first prayed for their union in the Divine communion. Its purpose is to give conviction to the world about His mission for mens salvation. Secondly, He prayed for their growth and maturity in the Divine knowledge. So that, the world might be influenced by their application of the Divine truth, and might be converted unto Christ. In conclusion, Christ emphasized that He alone knew Gods will, and He alone was the perfect Revealer of God (John 17:25-26). In this High-Priestly prayer of Christ, the scheme of redemption and Gods plan in the church are revealed.

Doctrinal Summary of John 17

In this chapter, Christ revealed the importance of the word. (1) The word is originated from the Father (John 17:7). (2) Christ is the perfect Revealer of His word (John 17:25-26). (3) The keeping and receiving of the word is the requisite for ones salvation (17:3, 8). (4) The word is able to sanctify the believer (17:17). (5) The word is truth (17:17). (6) The word is able to keep one in the faith (17:14-15). (7) The word is able to enable ones communion with God (17:21). (8) Christian union is dependant on the word (17:21). (8) The word is not only relevant for the 1st century Christ, but also for the future believers (17:20).

Christs mission for mens salvation is taught in the first five verses of this chapter. (1) Mens salvation are dependant on Gods glorification of Christs death or humiliation. God revealed His love in His death, and resurrected Christ to bless His people. (2) Eternal life is found in the Person of Jesus Christ, Who has all authority over all creature, and has the right to give life to whomsoever He wills (John 1:12-13). (3) Mens salvation is dependant on a right knowledge of the Sons mission. This serves as a requisite for ones acceptance of God (John 17:3). (4) Mens salvation also depends upon Christs revelation of the Father, Who has revealed the Father by His word and deeds (John 1:17-18; 14:9). (5) Mens salvation also dependant on Gods exaltation of Christ. His exaltation and ascension perfect the communion between God and men.

The unity of believers is emphasized in this chapter. This union is first depends on ones communion with the Divine fellowship (17:21). It is accomplished by ones obedience of the truth (1 John 1:5-7). The instrument for the union of believers is the word of God. The result of this union is the conviction of the world. Christians, by knowing and living in the truth, will give knowledge to the world about the mission of the Son of God, and the way of salvation (17:21, 23).

Analytical Outline of John 18

The arrest and trial of the King.

I. (1-12) Jesus gives Himself to the hand of the enemies.

A. (1) The circumstance is given.

B. (2-3) The evil band attempt is described.

C. (4-11) The submission of Jesus is described.

1. (4-5) He identifies Himself before the enemies.

2. (6) The impotency of the enemies is recorded.

3. (7-9) Jesus protects His disciples.

4. (10-12) Jesus drinks the cup of the Father.

a. (10) Peter carnal resistance is described.

b. (11) Jesuss willingness to do the Fathers will is described.

c. (12) Jesus is bound for the world.

II. (13-27) Jesus is tried before the Jewish court.

A. (13) He is taken to Annass house.

B. (14) The identity of Annas is given.

C. (15-18) The first denial of Peter is described.

D. (19-24) The trial of Jesus before Annas is described.

1. (19-21) Jesus is examined.

2. (22-23) Jesus is stricken.

3. (24) Jesus is sent to Caiaphas.

E. (25) Peters second denial is recorded.

F. (26-27) Peters third denial is recorded.

III. (28-40) Jesus is tried before Pilate.

A. (28-32) Jesus is charged by the Jews before Pilate.

1. (28-29) The Jews seek an accusation against Jesus.

2. (30-31) The Jews seek to put Jesus to death.

3. (32) The prediction of Jesus is fulfilled.

B. (33-37) Jesus defense is related before Pilate.

1. (33-36) His Kingdom is not belonged to this world.

2. (37) He has come to testify the truth.

C. (38-40) Jesus is declared innocent by Pilate.

1. (38) Pilate declares Him innocent.

2. (39) Pilate seeks to release Him.

3. (40) The Jews determine to kill Jesus.

Exegetical Commentary of John 18

In this chapter, the evangelist recorded the arrestation and trials of Jesus. All four evangelists related these last events of Jesus earthly ministry, however, they described them in their own stand points. Therefore, there are some details omitted by one, but are mentioned by others. Nevertheless, their accounts are in perfect harmony. After recording the High-Priestly prayer of Jesus at the last Supper of Passover, John skipped over the event in Gethsemane, and continued his narrating about the arrestation of Jesus. Comparing with the other evangelists, one point is apparent in Johns intention, that is, Jesus was not arrested by the evil workers, but He submitted Himself to the Fathers will and allowed Himself to be bound by the soldiers. The event starts with the scene at the garden of Gethsemane, an ungodly mob came with the authority of the civil and religious leaders of the Jewish nation, and executed their order to arrest Jesus. Judas the traitor was among this group, who received thirty-pieces of silver from the chief priests and delivered Jesus into their hand. It was so hypocritical that he used a kiss as the signal to identify Jesus to the band of soldier (mat.26:48-50). Though Jesus had done no violence, yet the Jewish leaders sent a multitudes of soldiers armed with swords and staves. Indeed, if it were not Jesus submitting to the Fathers will, no one could have arrested Him. He was not impotent nor a victim before the arresters, but contrarily, His arresters were impotent before the Lord of glory. When He spoke just a word, all the men fell to the ground. In this very gloomy hour, Jesus did not worried about Himself, for He was fully conscious about His destiny; He was concerned about His apostles. He urged the enemies to arrest Him and to let His followers go. However, Peter drew out a sword, and smote a high-priests servant, attempting to resist the enemies. But Jesus rebuked him and stopped his attempt, lest He should be charged as a political rebel by the civil leaders. He was innocence and sinless, as of a Lamb without spot and unblemished, so that He might take away the sins of the world.

Jesus then was taken to Annas who was the father-in-law of Caiaphas the high-priest. Annas himself had previously been high-priest. During this time, the priesthood was corrupt, and became a political position. There, Jesus was examined by Annas concerning His teaching and ministry. Annas could not find any fault in Jesus, and sent Him to the house of Caiaphas. While Jesus was examining before Annas, Caiaphas, and the Sanhedrin, Peter and John were at these scenes. Peter, probably was confused about the arrestation and trials of his Master, because his hope and faith were upon Jesus. He believed that He was the Messiah, and the One to deliver Israel. Yet now He was a Man judged and condemned by the leaders of the people. Under the pressure of some inquirers, he denied Jesus to be His Master for three times. At that very moment, the cock crew, Peter then remembered Jesus prediction of his three denials, and went out weeping bitterly. Fortunately, he repented of his sins, and became a faithful servant of his Master until death.

After being tried by Annas, Jesus was sent to the house of Caiaphas, and tried by the Sanhedrin and Caiaphas. They hired false witnesses to testify against Him, and mocked Him, and struck Him. When Jesus confessed He was the Son of God, they condemned Him speaking blasphemy. They therefore took Him to the palace of Pilate, in order to sentence Him unto death. During this time, the Jews were governed by the Romans, and had no authority to condemn one to die on a religious crime. They informed Pilate that Jesus had committed a political crime, and made Himself to be King (Luke 23:2). Then, Pilate took Jesus inside the palace, and examined Him privately. He could not find any fault in Jesus case and pronounced Him to be innocence. Jesus did not claim to be an earthly king, but a spiritual King. He was born to bear witness to the truth. Pilate did not listen to His testimony, nor did the Jews.

Doctrinal Summary of John 18

In Jesus arrestation, He demonstrated many of His characteristics. (1) He was not impotent nor a victim before the enemies, but He gave Himself into their hand. It was the Fathers will that He came to the world to bear the sins of the world, so that the door of salvation might be opened unto mankind. (2) He was submissive and obedient to the Fathers will. Though He had the power to destroy the enemies, and saved Himself from the cross, but in doing the Fathers will He offered Himself to be bound, and to die as the Perfect Offering. (3) He was courageous in doing Gods will. When the band of soldiers came to arrest Him, He did not shrink from it but identified Himself. (4) He was concerned for His disciples. Even in that gloomy hour, His concern was for others, but not for Himself.

The nature of Jesus Kingdom is revealed in His trial before Pilate. His Kingdom was not an earthly one, but a spiritual one. His citizens did not fight with carnal weapon, but fought with spiritual weapons to conquer the world (Eph.6:12-18). They submitted to the only one King Who reigned in their heart by the Gospel. This Kingdom was established on the day of Pentecost, when Peter delivered the first Gospel sermon through Divine inspiration and authority, many Jews were converted into it by obeying the rule of God. This Kingdom will last until the second coming of Christ, Who will deliver the Kingdom unto God the Father (1 Cor.15:27-28).

John described a sad scene in this chapter, that many would love darkness rather than the Light. Without a shadow of doubt, one would certainly know Jesus credentials by the miraculous works which God had testified of Him (John 3:1; Acts 2:23). Irrationally, the religious and civil leaders of the Jewish nation rejected the evidence of Jesus claim, and refused to obey His voice. Moreover, they determined to kill Jesus. Pilate also rejected Jesus claim about the truth.

Analytical Outline of John 19

The atonement is accomplished.

I. (1-7) Pilate second attempt to release Jesus is failed.

A. (1-3) The humiliation of Jesus within the Praetorium is described.

1. (1) He is scourged.

2. (2-3) He is mocked by the soldiers.

B. (4-5) Pilate declares the innocence of Jesus.

C. (6-7) The Jews urge to crucify Jesus.

1. (6) They plead for His death.

2. (7) They give the indictment.

II. (8-12) Pilate third attempt to release Jesus is failed.

A. (8-9) Pilate questions the identity of Jesus.

B. (10-11) Pilate is informed about Jesus authority.

C. (12) Pilate is pressured by the Jews.

III. (13-16) Pilate delivers Jesus to be crucified.

A. (13-14) Pilate presents Jesus before the mob.

B. (15) Pilate is pressured with political consideration.

C. (16) Pilate yields to an unjust judgement.

IV. (17-30) The crucifixion of Jesus is described.

A. (17-18) The scene of crucifixion is described.

1. (17) He bears the cross.

2. (18) He is crucified between two.

B. (19-22) The inscription of the King is argued.

1. (19-20) Jesus is entitled as the King of the Jews.

2. (21-22) The Jews are contentious about the title.

C. (23-27) Two reactions beneath the cross are described.

1. (23-24) A selfish crime is described.

a. (23) The garment of Jesus is divided.

b. (24) The prophecy is fulfilled.

2. (25-27) A selfless love is described.

a. (25) The loving group of Jesus is gathered.

b. (26-27) Jesus love for Mary is seen.

D. (28-30) The redemption is accomplished.

1. (28-29) The suffering of Jesus is real.

2. (30) The suffering of Jesus is glorified.

V. (31-37) The meaning of His death is interpreted.

A. (31-33) Jesus is the perfect Lamb of God.

1. (31) The requirement of the Jews is related.

2. (32-33) The bone of Jesus is not broken.

B. (34-37) Two prophecies are fulfilled in Jesus death.

1. (34-35) Jesus is dead.

2. (36) Jesus is the Passover Lamb.

3. (37) Jesus is the pierced Messiah.

VI. (38-42) Jesus is buried.

A. (38-40) Jesus is wrapped by spices.

B. (41-42) Jesus is laid in a new tomb.

Exegetical Commentary of John 19

From verses 1 to 7, John described the second failure of Pilate in attempting to release Jesus. Before this event, Pilate sent Jesus into the hand of Herod Antipas who had the jurisdiction right over the Galilean. Herod was disappointed by Jesus silence, who expected Him to perform some miracles (Luke 23:6-12). He then sent Jesus back to Pilate. After being warned by her wife (Mat.27:19), and knowing the innocence of Jesus, Pilate determined to release Jesus. He punished Jesus with cruel scourging, hoping to appease the wrath of the Jews by His suffering and humiliation. Jesus was scourged for the sins of men, in order to heal their spiritual sickness (Isa.53:3-5). He was also mocked by the Roman soldiers. They put a crown of thorns on His head, and a purple robe to Him, and pretended giving homage to a King. Sadly, they did not know that He was in fact the King of the universe. They missed the blessing of Heaven by being ignorant of His sovereignty. Moreover, the Roman soldiers smote Him with their hands. After this humiliation, Pilate presented Jesus before the Jewish leaders, and declared His innocency. Irrationally, they would not listen to Pilate, but they urged him to crucify Jesus, and gave the indictment of His crime. The punishment of crucifixion was inflicted only on the heinous criminals. Though Jesus had never committed a crime, He was unjustly condemned by the Jews of speaking blasphemy. They refused to accept Him as their Messiah because He did not fit their expectation of an earthly political monarch.

From verses 8 to 12, John described the third failure of Pilate in attempting to release the innocent Man. Pilate was startled by the accusation of the Jews that Jesus was the Son of God. Therefore, he took Jesus into his palace, and reexamined His identity. However, Jesus would not answer his inquiry, for He had previously testified to him that He was a spiritual King. Pilate was angry, and threatened Jesus that he had the judicial authority over His life. But Jesus plainly revealed to him that there was an higher and superior authority over him. After this private conversation, Pilate was more frightened, and had a stronger desire to release Him. He, however, gave an unjust verdict against an innocent victim, because the Jews pressured him with a political cause. They argued that if he was loyal to Caesar, he would crucify Jesus. Sadly, he could not prevail over his political struggle and his temporal interest, but yielded to them. Though he tried to wash his hands from the blood guiltiness of Jesus, his unjust judgement was sinful. By trying to be a friend of Caesar, Pilate made himself an enemy of God (1 John 2:15-17). Jesus then was crucified by wicked hands of the Jews and of Pilate. These men did not flaw Gods plan of redemption. Rather, they played their role in killing the Lamb of God. Thereby, Gods predestinated counsel was carried out (Acts 2:22-23). Jesus was the sin-offering of God to take away the sins of the world. The door of Salvation was opened unto all by this perfect sin-offering (1 Tim.2:4-6).

John then described this pivotal event of redemption for the readers (John 19:17-37). The scene of the crucifixion is described in verses 17 to 18. Jesus bore His cross unto Golgotha, the place of a skull, and was crucified between two thieves. Thus, the prophecy of the Suffering Servant was fulfilled, that He bore the sins of the transgressors (Isa.53). From verses 19 to 22, the Jews argued about the inscription of Jesus, but Pilate prevailed in this in naming Jesus the King of the Jews. Then, two reactions beneath the cross were described in verses 23-27. The Roman soldiers were so selfish and worldly in dividing the garment of Jesus, and in seeking their own profit from the victim. Without knowing it, they fulfilled a prophecy regarding the offering of the Messiah. The prophet foretold that ungodly people would cast lot for His vesture (Ps.22:18). In contrast, a beloved family of Jesus was attending Jesus at this last hour. Though Jesus suffered intensively and painfully, His concern was for others. Here, He instructed John to take care of Marys livelihood. Also, He suffered willingly on the cross for the sins of the world. From verses 28-30, the scheme of redemption was accomplished. His suffering and death were real. No man took away His life, nor was He a victim to be killed, but He gave a life for the ransom of many. He gave up His Spirit into the Fathers hand. He was in full submission to the Father Who exalted Him above all (Heb.2:7-11). He was the Passover Lamb, therefore His bone was not broken by Gods providential power (John 19:31-35). Then, His side was pierced by a soldier, providentially, another Messianic prophecy was fulfilled. The Messiah was pierced, in order that a fountain of cleansing might be opened for sinner (Zech.13:1). Before the evening had come, two disciples of Jesus came to bury their loving Teacher. They wrapped His body with rich spices, and placed it into a new tomb.

Doctrinal Summary of John 19

In this chapter, John described the last day of Jesus ministry upon the earth. He accomplished Gods scheme of redemption by taking upon Him the sins of the world. Most importantly, Jesus life was not taken away by men, but He Himself gave His Spirit unto the Father. Every major event of Jesus was predicted by Gods prophets in the Old Testament. (1) The unjust judgement by Pilate was prophesied by Isaiah (Isa.53:7). Though He was innocent and sinless, He was unjustly condemned by men. (2) While He was on the cross, the Roman soldiers cast lots on His vesture. It was again an event prophesied by David speaking of the rejected King of God (Ps.22:18). (3) The body of Jesus was not broken by the Roman soldier, because they acknowledged that He was already dead. This was Gods Providence, that the body of the perfect Passover Lamb must be sound and whole (Num.9:12). (4) When the Roman soldier pierced His side, another prophet was being fulfilled. He was the pierced Messiah, that a fountain of cleansing might be opened to sinners (Zech.13:1). (5) His crucifixion and burial were prophesied by Isaiah. He was crucified with the wicked, but He was buried in a new tomb (Isa.53:9). By all these proofs, He was evidently the Messiah of God.

Though men took action in putting Jesus on the cross, God was indeed in charge of these events. He allowed them to carry out their wicked and sinful desire, so that His predestinated counsel might be accomplished (Acts 2:23). There are only two kinds of vessels in Gods house. One can choose either be a vessel unto honor or a vessel unto wrath. God has decreed the Gospel to be the medium to save men, and to make sinners to be righteous. Sadly, many people choose to reject Gods gift of salvation. Pilate is one of those, who loved the praise of men, and worldly interest, but chose the lot of eternal death by his foolish choice.

Analytical Outline of John 20

Jesus is resurrected.

I. (1-10) Three witnesses have seen the empty tomb.

A. (1-2) The witness of Mary Magdalene is recorded.

1. (1) She sees the empty tomb.

2. (2) She reports it to Peter and John.

B. (3-8) The two disciples come to the empty tomb.

C. (9-10) Their reaction is described.

1. (9) They are ignorant of the scripture.

2. (10) They return home.

II. (11-18) Jesus first appearance to Mary is recorded.

A. (11) Mary weeps for the missing body.

B. (12-13) Mary explains her grief.

C. (14) Mary fails to recognize Jesus.

D. (15-16) Mary recognizes Jesus by His address.

E. (17) Mary is prohibited to touch Him.

F. (18) Mary testifies the event to the disciples.

III. (19-23) Jesus second appearance to the apostles is recorded.

A. (19) His manifestation is recorded.

B. (20) His revelation is recorded.

C. (21) His commission is given.

D. (22) His power is given.

E. (23) His delegation is given.

IV. (24-29) Jesus appearance to Thomas is recorded.

A. (24-25) Thomas disbelieves.

B. (26) Jesus appears.

C. (27) Jesus offers evidence.

D. (28) Thomas confesses Jesus.

E. (29) Jesus remarks on believing faith.

F. (30-31) The purpose of writing is giving.

Exegetical Commentary of John 20

In this chapter, John described the purpose of his writing, that is, to help one to produce living faith in Jesus Christ, the Son of God (John 20:30-31). He recognized that Jesus had done many miraculous signs, and had taught many great lessons. Yet he deliberately chose to skip over many events, and to record some spiritual lessons and significant signs of Jesus. His main purpose was to convince the readers of his Gospel that Jesus was the hope of eternal life. He recorded three eye-witnesses testimony about Jesus resurrection and three appearances of Jesus.

From verses 1 to 10, Mary Magdalene was the first eyewitness of Jesus empty tomb. According to Mark 16:1, two other ladies went with Mary to the tomb of Jesus on the first day of the week. It was the third day after His crucifixion. They first found the giant stone was rolled away from the entrance of the tomb (Mark 16:2-4). John, however, laid his emphasis on Mary Magdalene, and described her amazement about the empty tomb. She then ran to the disciples and informed this news unto them (Luke 24:9-11). Only Peter and John immediately went to the tomb, but the rest did not believe her report. Though John came to the tomb first, he did not entered it, but he observed the situation. Then, both of them entered the tomb and saw the linen clothes and the napkin were putting aside by themselves, and the body of Jesus was not there. They believed on the evidence that Jesus was risen from the dead. Indeed, it was the only possible conclusion. The evangelist reflected on their ignorance about the necessity of Jesus resurrection, that they did not understand the Old Testament teaching about the bodily resurrection of the Messiah (Ps.16:8).

After recording the three eyewitnesses of the empty tomb, John related Jesus first appearance to Mary Magdalene. She was mourning about the missing body of Jesus, her Master. According to the other evangelists, two angels appeared unto her and reported to her about His resurrection. John focused on her personal testimony of Jesus manifestation. After hearing the angels word, she beheld the resurrected Jesus, but was not able to recognized His glorified state. She required about the loving Masters body from the supposed gardener. As soon as Jesus addressed her name, she recognized Him. When she tried to touch Him, she was forbidden to do so. Jesus told her that He was not yet ascended to the Father, therefore this fellowship was not yet made possible between God and men, or Spirit with mortal. When Christ ascended back to Heaven, and became the Mediator between God and men, this spiritual communion and fellowship were secured and accomplished. Men are no more separated from God by their sins, for the peace and sin offering were made in His death.

Jesus then appeared among the apostles (John 20:19-23). It was significant that He sent His salutation of peace to His apostles, for they were fearful of the Jews. Jesus revealed His side and hands to the apostles, in order to confirm their faith in His resurrection and Divinity. He also commissioned them as His embassador to declare the New Covenant of the Father (Mt.28:18-20). By preaching the Gospel of Jesus, they held the authority to remit ones sin or to retain it. They were therefore Christs spokesmen. If one does not obey the apostles teaching, he is in a lost condition. This appearance of Jesus before the apostles was another proof of His resurrection.

Thomas the doubter was not presented with the group when Jesus appeared to His apostles. He did not believe in the report of the apostles concerning the resurrection news. He asserted that only if he had seen Jesus, and touched His nail prints with his fingers, he would not believe this news. Such attitude offered another indisputable proof of Jesus resurrection. He simply demanded some evident before he would place his faith on it. Then, the next Sunday, Jesus appeared unto the group again, and Thomas was there. Thomas confessed Jesus as Lord and God when he saw the evident.

Doctrinal Summary of John 20

This chapter is a chapter of proof for the resurrection of Jesus. After presenting its evident, John showed the readers the result of believing Jesus the Son of God was eternal life. Concerning the resurrection, it is the demonstration and proof of His Divinity and claim (Rom.1:4). If Christ be not rise from the dead, there would be no hope for mankind (1 Cor.15:17-22). His resurrection was a bodily one. Many people today reject the concept of bodily resurrection, and think it to be inconceivable. Indeed, the bodily resurrection is plainly taught in the Bible (Job.19:25-26; Ps.16:8; John 20:20, 27). Also, if God could create the universe from nothing, why could He not glorified the mortal body into a immortal body? Any one that denies the bodily resurrection of Jesus has denied the oracle of God, and is in a lost condition.

The evident for the resurrection fact are Jesus three appearances to the disciples and three eyewitnesses of the empty tomb. The eyewitnesses of His resurrection were coming from different background, and had different personality, yet their testimonies were unanimous. However, many speculations have been offered through out the centuries to explain the empty tomb of Jesus. However, none of these speculations can give a reasonable answer to the empty tomb. There is indeed only one conclusion, that is, Christ has resurrected from the dead.

In appearing to the apostles, Jesus had given them the delegation to preach His word to the world. By preaching the Gospel, they had the authority to forgive sin or to retain sin. This promise was fulfilled on the Day of Pentecost. When Peter stood up with the other apostles, and preached the Gospel the first time, they opened the door of the Kingdom. The Jews that obeyed their word were saved, but the other who disobeyed were unforgiven of their sins (2 Thess.1:7-9). Today, the apostles doctrine is still binding on man, since they were Christs embassador and spokesmen.

Analytical Outline of John 21

I. (1-14) Jesus third appearance to the disciples at the Lake is recorded.

A. (1-3) The unsuccessful fishing is described.

1. (1) The scene of operation is given.

2. (2) The number of operation is given.

3. (3) The disappointed operation is given.

B. (4-6) The power of Jesus is described.

1. (4) The stranger appears.

2. (5-6) The instruction is given.

C. (7-8) The friendly recognition of Jesus is described.

1. (7) The reaction of Peter is described.

2. (8) The rewarding catch is described.

D. (9-14) The provision of Jesus is described.

1. (9) The meal is prepared.

2. (10) The demand is given.

3. (11) The fishes are numbered.

4. (12) The invitation is given.

5. (13) The food is distributed.

6. (14) The reflection is recorded.

II. (15-23) Jesus conversation with Peter is recorded.

A. (15-17) Peters loyalty is tested.

B. (18-19) Peters suffering is foretold.

C. (20-23) Peters curiosity is unanswered.

III. (24-25) John concludes his book.

A. (24) The truthfulness of his account is testified.

B. (25) The abundance of Jesus works is described.

Exegetical Commentary of John 21

Significantly, John did not end his account with Thomas conviction and confession of the resurrected Christ, but in this final chapter, he recorded an appearance of Jesus at the lake and a conversation with Peter. His purpose was to remind the believers of Jesus, that the resurrected Master demanded their constant discipleship. They should testify the resurrection of Jesus to others, and make disciples for Jesus, and grow in the knowledge of God.

The chapter started with an event of fishing of the seven apostles. The scene was at the sea of Galilee, where they went for their former profession, fishing. After toiling for all night, they could not catch any fish. They must be disappointed of their vain labor. Then, Jesus appeared on the shore, Whom the disciples could not recognized at the outset. He instructed them to cast the net to their right side, and promised them of fishes. He was the Lord of Heaven and the earth, even the fishes were under His dominion. The disciples followed His instruction, and caught a multitude of fishes.

The significance of this miraculous catch is (1) one must be busy on the Lords work in evangelism. Disciples are commanded to be fisher of men (Mat.28:18-20). This is the Masters will, Who came to seek and to save that which was lost (Luke 19:10). (2) Also, ones blessing is dependant upon his obedience to Jesus instruction. Except one obeys Jesus word, his labor will be vain (John 15:1-6).

From verses 7 to 14, John recorded an fellowship or communion between Jesus and His disciples. As soon as Peter recognized the Stranger on the shore was Jesus, he jumped into the water and swam to the shore. This move indicated his affection for his Master, and his apology for his three denials of Him. The other disciples were busy dragging the net of fishes. On the shore, Jesus had already made a provision for them. What a joyous time for the disciples, that they again joined their Master in close fellowship. It was no more a time of sorrow, nor uncertainty. They were now sure of His Deity, and power, and love. This spiritual communion is promised to all believers of Jesus. Jesus says, "If a man love Me, he will keep My words, and My Father will love him, and We will come unto him, and make Our abode with him" (John 14:23). By Jesus mediatory work, men are united unto Gods fellowship (1 John 1:5-2:2).

From verses 15 to 23, a conversation of Jesus with Peter is recorded. It is a call of loyalty and responsibility from the Lord to every believer of Him. Jesus requested Peter to feed the small lambs and to tend the sheep. Personal evangelism is an important work for mature Christians, yet edification of new converts and of the saints are also essential for them to carry out. Without proper feeding of Gods knowledge, the saved converts will depart from the truth, and will be lost for apostasy. No wonder, Peter, in his epistles, wrote about the necessity of one in partaking the sincere milk of the word (1 Pet.2:2). Edification includes teaching, encouraging, and leading by example, and exercising of patience. Its purpose is to build one up in the knowledge and profession of Christianity. Beside giving Peter the responsibility to edify the disciples, Jesus also tried his heart by asking his love for Him. In Jesus first two requests, He used the highest form of love, agapao, to demand Peters full surrender to His will. Peter, in his humility and sorrow of the former denials, answered Jesus with a friendly love, phileo, commitment. Then, Jesus asked Peter whether he had that form of imperfect and humble love for Him. Peter was grieved by this inquiry and affirmed his love for Him by appealing to His Omniscience, saying, "Lord, Thou knowest all things, Thou knowest that I love Thee" (John 20:17). After predicting the suffering of Peter, Jesus urged him to follow Him whole-heartedly. Then, John concluded his account with his affirmation of its truthfulness and a testimony of the abundant work of Jesus in the world.

Doctrinal Summary of John 21

In this chapter, John concluded his account by recording two events of Jesus. First, Jesus had a fellowship with the disciples on the shore of Galilee (John 20:1-14). Second, Jesus commissioned Peter to feed His sheep and to follow Him (John 20:15-23). It was significant that John did not finish his discourse with the confession of Thomas. No doubt, his design was to remind Christians that the knowledge of Jesus resurrection was not sufficient, but that the response to His resurrection was also important. Christians are to make disciples for their Master, and to edify them in the grace and knowledge of God. Edification includes teaching of the word, and encouraging, and leading by example. Its purpose is to build up ones knowledge and maturity in the Christian profession.

Some lessons could be learned from the miraculous draught of fishes. (1) One must be busy in the Masters work. Every Christian must put the work of the Kingdom as his first priority in life (Mat.6:33). (2) Ones obedience to Christs word will result spiritual success. One must follow Jesus instruction in laboring for the Kingdom, otherwise, his efforts will be in vain. Except one abides in His word, he could do nothing (John 15:1-6). (3) Jesus is the Lord of all nature. Even the fishes were under His dominion.

In Jesus conversation with Peter, the lesson of loyalty and of responsibility are taught. Jesus requires full submission and complete obedience from His disciples. This obedience must be sprung from a self-surrendering love for the Savior. Discipleship includes responsibility. Here, Jesus asked Peter to feed the lamb, and to tend the sheep. Every believer has to carry out his responsibility to grow and to produce fruits for God. Though Jesus predicted Peter would suffer for His name, yet there would be a rewarding time for his faithful service. Every believer will suffer in this life, but the faithful will also be blessed and rewarded at the appearing of the Chief-Shepherd.